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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Steinn Óldr 11II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Steinn Herdísarson, Óláfsdrápa 11’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 376-7.

Steinn HerdísarsonÓláfsdrápa
101112

at ‘after’

notes

[1] at gǫrva gunni ‘after the finished battle’: This is taken as a prepositional phrase with both the adj. gǫrva ‘finished’ and gunni battle’ in the f. acc. sg. (for at + acc. in the meaning ‘after’, see Fritzner: at 1). If at gørva (or gerva) is taken as an inf. with bjósk ‘prepared’ (l. 2) (bjósk at gørva gunni ‘prepared to wage war’; so Skj B; Skald), við styr ramman ‘for fierce fighting’ (l. 2) becomes superfluous.

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gǫrva ‘finished’

notes

[1] at gǫrva gunni ‘after the finished battle’: This is taken as a prepositional phrase with both the adj. gǫrva ‘finished’ and gunni battle’ in the f. acc. sg. (for at + acc. in the meaning ‘after’, see Fritzner: at 1). If at gørva (or gerva) is taken as an inf. with bjósk ‘prepared’ (l. 2) (bjósk at gørva gunni ‘prepared to wage war’; so Skj B; Skald), við styr ramman ‘for fierce fighting’ (l. 2) becomes superfluous.

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gunni ‘battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle

notes

[1] at gǫrva gunni ‘after the finished battle’: This is taken as a prepositional phrase with both the adj. gǫrva ‘finished’ and gunni battle’ in the f. acc. sg. (for at + acc. in the meaning ‘after’, see Fritzner: at 1). If at gørva (or gerva) is taken as an inf. with bjósk ‘prepared’ (l. 2) (bjósk at gørva gunni ‘prepared to wage war’; so Skj B; Skald), við styr ramman ‘for fierce fighting’ (l. 2) becomes superfluous.

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ramman ‘fierce’

rammr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): mighty

[2] ramman: rǫmmu H, rǫmmum Hr

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herskildi ‘war-shield’

herskjǫldr (noun m.): war-shield

notes

[3] herskildi ‘the war-shield’: See Note to Steinn Niz 7/7 above.

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halda ‘be brought’

halda (verb): hold, keep

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hraustgeðr ‘brave-minded’

hraustgeðr (adj.): [brave-minded]

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austan ‘from the east’

austan (adv.): from the east

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fœrðu ‘brought’

2. fœra (verb): bring

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lítlu ‘a little’

lítill (adj.; °lítinn): little

notes

[5] lítlu ‘a little’: This adv. could also modify lið ‘troops’ (l. 5): lítlu meira lið ‘a little more troops’. — [6] lítlu fyr norðan Stað ‘a little north of Stadlandet’: Peninsula between Nordfjord and Sunnmøre, Norway.

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lítlu ‘a little’

lítill (adj.; °lítinn): little

notes

[5] lítlu ‘a little’: This adv. could also modify lið ‘troops’ (l. 5): lítlu meira lið ‘a little more troops’. — [6] lítlu fyr norðan Stað ‘a little north of Stadlandet’: Peninsula between Nordfjord and Sunnmøre, Norway.

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lǫng ‘long’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

notes

[6] lǫng borð ‘the long ships’: Lit. ‘the long plankings’. Borð ‘planking’ used as pars pro toto for ‘ship’.

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borð ‘ships’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

notes

[6] lǫng borð ‘the long ships’: Lit. ‘the long plankings’. Borð ‘planking’ used as pars pro toto for ‘ship’.

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fyr ‘’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[6] lítlu fyr norðan Stað ‘a little north of Stadlandet’: Peninsula between Nordfjord and Sunnmøre, Norway.

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Stað ‘of Stadlandet’

1. staðr (noun m.; °-ar/-s; -ir): place

notes

[6] lítlu fyr norðan Stað ‘a little north of Stadlandet’: Peninsula between Nordfjord and Sunnmøre, Norway.

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norðan ‘north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

notes

[6] lítlu fyr norðan Stað ‘a little north of Stadlandet’: Peninsula between Nordfjord and Sunnmøre, Norway.

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trôðu ‘set foot’

troða (verb): tread

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túnvǫll ‘on the farm-yard’

túnvǫllr (noun m.): [on farm-yard]

kennings

túnvǫll reyðar.
‘on the farm-yard of the whale.’
   = SEA

on the farm-yard of the whale. → SEA
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reyðar ‘of the whale’

reyðr (noun f.; °; -ar): whale, rorqual

kennings

túnvǫll reyðar.
‘on the farm-yard of the whale.’
   = SEA

on the farm-yard of the whale. → SEA

notes

[7] reyðar ‘of the whale’: Reyðr is a baleen whale (rorqual), any whale of the species Balaenoptera. In ModIcel. reyðarhvalur refers specifically to the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). See also HSn Lv 2/3 and Anon Nkt 2/2. Reyðr is also a fish, the Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). See Note to Sturl Hrafn 7/8 and Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

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tveir ‘two’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

notes

[8] tveir dǫglingar ‘two noblemen’: According to H-Hr, these were Óláfr and his brother, Magnús. In Mork the conflict with Denmark takes place after the death of Magnús (1069), and the two noblemen are not identified (Óláfr and Sveinn Úlfsson?). If sts 9-11 are misplaced in their present contexts, however (see Note to st. 9/4 above), the two noblemen who set out from the east would be Óláfr and his father, Haraldr, embarking on their expedition west to England via Orkney in 1066. The likelihood of that being the case is strengthened by the use of the adv. austan ‘from the east’ (l. 4), because an army sailing westwards from the western coast of Norway could hardly end up in Denmark. According to Hkr (ÍF 28, 175-8), Haraldr and Óláfr sailed from Trondheim (north of Stadlandet) to the islands of Solund at the estuary of Sognefjorden and then west to Shetland and Orkney.

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dǫglingar ‘noblemen’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

[8] dǫglingar: so H, Hr, ‘dꜹlingar’ Mork

notes

[8] tveir dǫglingar ‘two noblemen’: According to H-Hr, these were Óláfr and his brother, Magnús. In Mork the conflict with Denmark takes place after the death of Magnús (1069), and the two noblemen are not identified (Óláfr and Sveinn Úlfsson?). If sts 9-11 are misplaced in their present contexts, however (see Note to st. 9/4 above), the two noblemen who set out from the east would be Óláfr and his father, Haraldr, embarking on their expedition west to England via Orkney in 1066. The likelihood of that being the case is strengthened by the use of the adv. austan ‘from the east’ (l. 4), because an army sailing westwards from the western coast of Norway could hardly end up in Denmark. According to Hkr (ÍF 28, 175-8), Haraldr and Óláfr sailed from Trondheim (north of Stadlandet) to the islands of Solund at the estuary of Sognefjorden and then west to Shetland and Orkney.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As sts 7-10 above. In Mork this is the seventh st. in the sequence. H-Hr creates a new prose environment from the poetic content.

[5-8]: In the second helmingr other eds (Skj B; Skald) emend trðu ‘set foot on’ (l. 7) to trðut ‘did not set foot on’ and meira (n. acc. sg.) ‘more’ (l. 8) to meiri (m. nom. pl.) ‘more, greater’ and read tveir dǫglingar meiri trðut túnvǫll reyðar ‘two greater noblemen never set foot on the farm-yard of the whale’.

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