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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Leið 32VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Leiðarvísan 32’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 169.

Anonymous PoemsLeiðarvísan
313233

ǫðlings ‘of the prince’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

[1] ǫðlings: egg þings BRydberg, B, af þingi 624, ‘ạf̣ þings’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2.

Close

ǫðlings ‘of the prince’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

[1] ǫðlings: egg þings BRydberg, B, af þingi 624, ‘ạf̣ þings’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2.

Close

ærir ‘The envoys’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2.

Close

kunnan ‘known’

kunnr (adj.): known (?) < alkunnr (adj.)

[2] ‑kunnan: ‘kvna’ 624

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

bœs ‘dwelling’

bœr (noun m.; °-jar/-ar, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja/-a, dat. -jum/-um/bjóm/-am/-m, acc. -i/-ja/-a/bǿ): farm, homestead

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

bœs ‘dwelling’

bœr (noun m.; °-jar/-ar, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja/-a, dat. -jum/-um/bjóm/-am/-m, acc. -i/-ja/-a/bǿ): farm, homestead

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

bœs ‘dwelling’

bœr (noun m.; °-jar/-ar, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja/-a, dat. -jum/-um/bjóm/-am/-m, acc. -i/-ja/-a/bǿ): farm, homestead

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

bœs ‘dwelling’

bœr (noun m.; °-jar/-ar, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja/-a, dat. -jum/-um/bjóm/-am/-m, acc. -i/-ja/-a/bǿ): farm, homestead

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

bœs ‘dwelling’

bœr (noun m.; °-jar/-ar, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja/-a, dat. -jum/-um/bjóm/-am/-m, acc. -i/-ja/-a/bǿ): farm, homestead

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

bœs ‘dwelling’

bœr (noun m.; °-jar/-ar, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja/-a, dat. -jum/-um/bjóm/-am/-m, acc. -i/-ja/-a/bǿ): farm, homestead

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

húsi ‘house’

hús (noun n.; °-s; -): house

[3] húsi: so 624, 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]’ B

Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[4] hreins: hrein B, hreinn 624

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[4] hreins: hrein B, hreinn 624

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[4] hreins: hrein B, hreinn 624

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[4] hreins: hrein B, hreinn 624

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[4] hreins: hrein B, hreinn 624

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[4] hreins: hrein B, hreinn 624

kennings

Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar
‘The envoys of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath ’
   = APOSTLES

the pure dwelling of the heath → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
The envoys of GOD → APOSTLES

notes

[1, 3, 4] Ærir ǫðlings hreins bœs heiðar ‘servants of the prince of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN > = God ( = Christ) > APOSTLES]’: The ms. readings of the first part of the second word of l. 1 are confusing, though they seem to agree on the second part, presenting it as some form of the noun þing ‘meeting, assembly’. This is, however, difficult to fit into what appears to be a kenning for the Apostles as the subject of the first helmingr. If B’s reading eggþings ‘blade-meeting [BATTLE]’ is kept (so Skald and NN §2144), a standard kenning results: eggþings ærir ‘envoys of the blade-meeting [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but heiðar bœs ‘of the dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’ is unaccounted for, unless the idea of ‘heaven’s warriors’, invoked by Kock in NN is correct. Finnur Jónsson’s suggested emendation of B’s eggþings to ǫðlings ‘prince, ruler’ has been followed here, except that hreins ‘pure’ is taken with bœs rather than ǫðlings. The resulting kenning is parallel to ǫðlingr salar rǫðla ‘prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’ in 33/2. — [3] hreins bœs heiðar ‘of the pure dwelling of the heath [SKY/HEAVEN]’: Cf. the heaven-kennings salr heiðar ‘hall of the heath’ in Geisl 7/5-6 and tjald heiða ‘tent of the heaths’ in Líkn 12/3.

Close

einu ‘a certain’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone

[4] einu: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘ein[...]’ B, einni 624

Close

skjǫldungr ‘the king’

skjǫldungr (noun m.): king

kennings

skjǫldungr skríns skýja
‘the king of the shrine of the clouds ’
   = God

the shrine of the clouds → HEAVEN
the king of the HEAVEN → God
Close

skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

skjǫldungr skríns skýja
‘the king of the shrine of the clouds ’
   = God

the shrine of the clouds → HEAVEN
the king of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[5-6] skríns skýja ‘of the shrine of the clouds [HEAVEN]’: The conceit of heaven as a shrine, whose jewel is the sun, is a popular one. This heaven-kenning occurs twice in Has (19/7-8, 29/7-8), skrín providing the hǫfuðstafr (as it does here) both times.

Close

skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

skjǫldungr skríns skýja
‘the king of the shrine of the clouds ’
   = God

the shrine of the clouds → HEAVEN
the king of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[5-6] skríns skýja ‘of the shrine of the clouds [HEAVEN]’: The conceit of heaven as a shrine, whose jewel is the sun, is a popular one. This heaven-kenning occurs twice in Has (19/7-8, 29/7-8), skrín providing the hǫfuðstafr (as it does here) both times.

Close

skríns ‘of the shrine’

skrín (noun n.; °-s; -): shrine

kennings

skjǫldungr skríns skýja
‘the king of the shrine of the clouds ’
   = God

the shrine of the clouds → HEAVEN
the king of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[5-6] skríns skýja ‘of the shrine of the clouds [HEAVEN]’: The conceit of heaven as a shrine, whose jewel is the sun, is a popular one. This heaven-kenning occurs twice in Has (19/7-8, 29/7-8), skrín providing the hǫfuðstafr (as it does here) both times.

Close

skríns ‘of the shrine’

skrín (noun n.; °-s; -): shrine

kennings

skjǫldungr skríns skýja
‘the king of the shrine of the clouds ’
   = God

the shrine of the clouds → HEAVEN
the king of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[5-6] skríns skýja ‘of the shrine of the clouds [HEAVEN]’: The conceit of heaven as a shrine, whose jewel is the sun, is a popular one. This heaven-kenning occurs twice in Has (19/7-8, 29/7-8), skrín providing the hǫfuðstafr (as it does here) both times.

Close

ítr ‘glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

Close

firri ‘save’

2. firra (verb): keep (from), remove

[7] firri: fyrir 624

Close

grandi ‘from harm’

grand (noun n.): injury

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The granting of the Holy Spirit to the Apostles at Pentecost is recounted in Acts II.1-4, and occurs in Sunday Letters from all three recensions.

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