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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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SnSt Ht 16III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Snorri Sturluson, Háttatal 16’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1120.

Snorri SturlusonHáttatal
151617

Setr ‘sets up’

setja (verb): place, set, establish

notes

[1] setr ‘sets up’: According to the prose commentaries of Snorri and Óláfr, this word ought to be the same as the last word in st. 15, but, as Finnur Jónsson points out (TGT 1927, 103), that is technically incorrect because setri ‘seat’ (st. 15/8) is a n. dat. sg. noun and setr is 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of the weak verb setja.

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of ‘around’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[1] of: ‘[…]f’ W(141)

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vísa ‘leader’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

[1] vísa: vísi U(47r)

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vitran ‘the wise’

vitr (adj.): wise

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vígdrótt ‘The battle-retinue’

vígdrótt (noun f.): battle-retinue

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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hníga ‘sink down’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

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ýr ‘the yew-bow’

ýr (noun m.): yew, yew-bow, bow

[3] ýr: ‘vr’ U

notes

[3] ýr ‘the yew-bow’: See Note to st. 11/1 above.

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skúrum ‘the showers’

1. skúr (noun f.; °; -ir): shower < skotskúr (noun f.)

[3] ‑skúrum: ‘scuro’ Tˣ

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skjaldborg ‘a shield-wall’

skjaldborg (noun f.): shield-wall

notes

[4] skjaldborg ‘a shield-wall’: Lit. ‘shield-fortification’. For the practice of protecting a king or war-leader in battle by surrounding him with a wall of shields, see Falk (1914b, 151).

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gras ‘the grass’

gras (noun n.): grass

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aldir ‘people’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

[4] aldir: so all others, aldri R

notes

[4] aldir ‘people’: So all other mss. Aldri ‘never’ (R) makes no sense in the context and has been altered to aldir (R*).

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Vápn ‘The weapon’

vápn (noun n.; °-s; -): weapon < vápnrjóðr (noun m.): [weapon-reddener]

kennings

Vápnrjóðr
‘The weapon-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The weapon-reddener → WARRIOR = Hákon
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rjóðr ‘reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < vápnrjóðr (noun m.): [weapon-reddener]

kennings

Vápnrjóðr
‘The weapon-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The weapon-reddener → WARRIOR = Hákon
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víða ‘the wide’

víðr (adj.): far

notes

[5] víða ‘wide’: Taken as an adj. (m. acc. pl.) here, but it could also be the adv. víða ‘far and wide’.

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vell ‘gold’

vell (noun n.): gold < vellbrjótr (noun m.): [gold-breaker]

kennings

sóknharðr vellbrjótr
‘the battle-strong gold-breaker ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the battle-strong gold-breaker → GENEROUS MAN
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brjótr ‘breaker’

brjótr (noun m.): breaker < vellbrjótr (noun m.): [gold-breaker]

[6] ‑brjótr: brjót W

kennings

sóknharðr vellbrjótr
‘the battle-strong gold-breaker ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the battle-strong gold-breaker → GENEROUS MAN
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spjótum ‘with spears’

spjót (noun n.; °-s; -): spear

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þryngr ‘advances’

þrøngva (verb): press, throng

[7] þryngr: so Tˣ, W, þungr R, ‘þravngr’ U

notes

[7] þryngr ‘advances’: So , W. Þungr ‘heavy’ has been altered in R to þryngr (R*).

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sverða ‘of swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

[7] sverða: ‘[…]ða’ W

kennings

sǫngvi sverða.
‘the song of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the song of swords. → BATTLE
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sǫngvi ‘the song’

sǫngr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -vi/-; -var): song

kennings

sǫngvi sverða.
‘the song of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the song of swords. → BATTLE
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sókn ‘the battle’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknharðr (adj.)

kennings

sóknharðr vellbrjótr
‘the battle-strong gold-breaker ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the battle-strong gold-breaker → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] sóknharðr ‘battle-strong’: This adj. could also qualify vápnrjóðr ‘weapon-reddener’ (l. 5; so Skj B, Skald and SnE 2007).

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harðr ‘strong’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < sóknharðr (adj.)

[8] ‑harðr: ‘h[…]ðr’ U

kennings

sóknharðr vellbrjótr
‘the battle-strong gold-breaker ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the battle-strong gold-breaker → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] sóknharðr ‘battle-strong’: This adj. could also qualify vápnrjóðr ‘weapon-reddener’ (l. 5; so Skj B, Skald and SnE 2007).

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þrǫmu ‘edges’

þrǫmr (noun m.; °dat. þremi; gen. þrama): rail, rim

[8] þrǫmu: þrumu W(141), þrimu U

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza illustrates the syntactic variation drǫgur ‘drawings’, in which the first word (setr ‘sets’) echoes the last word in the preceding stanza (setri ‘seat’; st. 15/8 above). In TGT, l. 1 is used to exemplify anadiplosis, which is the same figure (see st. 15 above).

The heading is drǫgur (U(47r) and added in R (R*)). This device is also known from Old French, Middle English, and Old Irish poetry, but it is very rare in Old Norse poetry (see Hl 1941, 129, SnE 2007, 53 and the literature cited there).

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