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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Leið 25VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Leiðarvísan 25’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 163-4.

Anonymous PoemsLeiðarvísan
242526

vilda ‘would like’

vilja (verb): want, intend

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al ‘for the altogether’

al- ((prefix)): very < alfríðr (adj.): very fine

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[2] alfríðustum ‘for the altogether fairest’: See also 9/4 and 36/4. Alfríðr provides the hǫfuðstafr in each case.

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fríðustum ‘fairest’

fríðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): beautiful, fair < alfríðr (adj.): very fine

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[2] alfríðustum ‘for the altogether fairest’: See also 9/4 and 36/4. Alfríðr provides the hǫfuðstafr in each case.

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smíða ‘to fashion’

smíða (verb): craft

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hátt ‘exalted’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[3] hátt: ‘ha[...]’ 624

notes

[3-4] hátt stef ‘exalted refrain’: The identical phrase is used to describe the first refrain in 13/1.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[3] í sléttum hróðri ‘in the smooth praise-poem’: Cf. the poet’s prayer for a slétt óðarlag ‘smooth poem-form’ in 3/2. These comments on the ‘smoothness’ of the poem are presumably intended to call attention to its apparently effortless artistry, though in fact much about the poem is rather self-conscious. Cf. the introductions to the refrains in 13/1-4 and 25/1-4, the prayers for inspiration and a hearing which occupy almost half of the upphaf and the expression of gratitude to prestr… Rúnolfr in st. 43

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hróðri ‘praise-poem’

hróðr (noun m.): encomium, praise

notes

[3] í sléttum hróðri ‘in the smooth praise-poem’: Cf. the poet’s prayer for a slétt óðarlag ‘smooth poem-form’ in 3/2. These comments on the ‘smoothness’ of the poem are presumably intended to call attention to its apparently effortless artistry, though in fact much about the poem is rather self-conscious. Cf. the introductions to the refrains in 13/1-4 and 25/1-4, the prayers for inspiration and a hearing which occupy almost half of the upphaf and the expression of gratitude to prestr… Rúnolfr in st. 43

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sléttum ‘the smooth’

sléttr (adj.): level, smooth

[3] sléttum: so 624, 399a‑bˣ, ‘sle[...]’ B

notes

[3] í sléttum hróðri ‘in the smooth praise-poem’: Cf. the poet’s prayer for a slétt óðarlag ‘smooth poem-form’ in 3/2. These comments on the ‘smoothness’ of the poem are presumably intended to call attention to its apparently effortless artistry, though in fact much about the poem is rather self-conscious. Cf. the introductions to the refrains in 13/1-4 and 25/1-4, the prayers for inspiration and a hearing which occupy almost half of the upphaf and the expression of gratitude to prestr… Rúnolfr in st. 43

Close

himins ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God
Close

himins ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God
Close

gotna ‘of the men’

gotnar (noun m.): men

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God
Close

gotna ‘of the men’

gotnar (noun m.): men

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God
Close

stef ‘refrain’

stef (noun n.; °; -): refrain

notes

[3-4] hátt stef ‘exalted refrain’: The identical phrase is used to describe the first refrain in 13/1.

Close

dróttni ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

alfríðustum dróttni gotna himins.
‘for the altogether fairest lord of the men of heaven. ’
   = God

the men of heaven. → ANGELS
for the altogether fairest lord of ANGELS → God
Close

Gramr ‘The king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Gramr hreggranns
‘The king of the storm-house ’
   = God

the storm-house → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

skóp ‘created’

2. skapa (verb): form

Close

hregg ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm < hreggrann (noun m.): storm-house

kennings

Gramr hreggranns
‘The king of the storm-house ’
   = God

the storm-house → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hregg ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm < hreggrann (noun m.): storm-house

kennings

Gramr hreggranns
‘The king of the storm-house ’
   = God

the storm-house → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ranns ‘house’

rann (noun n.): house, hall < hreggrann (noun m.): storm-house

kennings

Gramr hreggranns
‘The king of the storm-house ’
   = God

the storm-house → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ranns ‘house’

rann (noun n.): house, hall < hreggrann (noun m.): storm-house

kennings

Gramr hreggranns
‘The king of the storm-house ’
   = God

the storm-house → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

Close

sal ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salkonungr (noun m.): hall-king

kennings

snjallr sólar salkonungr
‘hall-king of the sun’
   = God

the hall of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the excellent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[7] salkonungr sólar ‘hall-king of the sun’: I.e. ‘king of the hall of the sun’, ‘king of heaven [ = God]’. Cf. Geisl 66/6, where God is described as salkonungr himna ‘hall-king of the heavens’. Salkonungr sólar is used twice in God-kennings in Heildr (13/1, 17/5).

Close

sal ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salkonungr (noun m.): hall-king

kennings

snjallr sólar salkonungr
‘hall-king of the sun’
   = God

the hall of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the excellent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[7] salkonungr sólar ‘hall-king of the sun’: I.e. ‘king of the hall of the sun’, ‘king of heaven [ = God]’. Cf. Geisl 66/6, where God is described as salkonungr himna ‘hall-king of the heavens’. Salkonungr sólar is used twice in God-kennings in Heildr (13/1, 17/5).

Close

konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king < salkonungr (noun m.): hall-king

kennings

snjallr sólar salkonungr
‘hall-king of the sun’
   = God

the hall of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the excellent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[7] salkonungr sólar ‘hall-king of the sun’: I.e. ‘king of the hall of the sun’, ‘king of heaven [ = God]’. Cf. Geisl 66/6, where God is described as salkonungr himna ‘hall-king of the heavens’. Salkonungr sólar is used twice in God-kennings in Heildr (13/1, 17/5).

Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

snjallr sólar salkonungr
‘hall-king of the sun’
   = God

the hall of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the excellent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[7] salkonungr sólar ‘hall-king of the sun’: I.e. ‘king of the hall of the sun’, ‘king of heaven [ = God]’. Cf. Geisl 66/6, where God is described as salkonungr himna ‘hall-king of the heavens’. Salkonungr sólar is used twice in God-kennings in Heildr (13/1, 17/5).

Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

snjallr sólar salkonungr
‘hall-king of the sun’
   = God

the hall of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the excellent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[7] salkonungr sólar ‘hall-king of the sun’: I.e. ‘king of the hall of the sun’, ‘king of heaven [ = God]’. Cf. Geisl 66/6, where God is described as salkonungr himna ‘hall-king of the heavens’. Salkonungr sólar is used twice in God-kennings in Heildr (13/1, 17/5).

Close

snjallr ‘the excellent’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold

kennings

snjallr sólar salkonungr
‘hall-king of the sun’
   = God

the hall of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the excellent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

allra ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: The first instance of the second refrain. The opening couplet of this refrain is very similar to that of the first refrain in Has 20/5-6: Ern skóp hauðr ok hlýrni | heims valdr sem kyn beima ‘The powerful ruler of the world [ = God] created earth and heaven as well as the kinsfolk of men’. The helmingr as a whole is similar to one preserved in Skm and attributed there to Markús Skeggjason (d. 1107) (Mark FragIII), probably from a poem about Christ (SnE 1998, I, 77 and 201).

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