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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Lv 18I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Lausavísur 18’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 722.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonLausavísur
171819

Stóðk ‘I stood’

standa (verb): stand

[1] Stóðk (‘Stod ec’): stóð 325VI, 321ˣ, 325V

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á ‘in’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[1] á Mont: ‘ꜳ mænt’ 73aˣ, á mót 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, á munt Kˣ

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Mont ‘the Alps’

Mont (noun n.): [Alps]

[1] á Mont: ‘ꜳ mænt’ 73aˣ, á mót 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, á munt Kˣ

notes

[1] Mont ‘the Alps’: Like OE Muntgeōf, the word may derive from Lat. Mon(te)s Jovis and refer to the Alps, though this is not certain. The context that Snorri provides probably implies that he understood the word this way. The eds of ÍF 28 and Hkr 1991 take ‘mont’ to be a common noun, perhaps meaning ‘mountain’, possibly in the Apennines (ÍF 28).

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[1] ok: þá er 325VI, 321ˣ, er 61, 325V, 325VII, en Flat, Tóm

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minntumk ‘I remembered’

1. minna (verb): remind, remember, recall

[1] minntumk: minntisk 325VI, 321ˣ

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mǫrg ‘many a’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[2] mǫrg: ‘maugr’ 325V

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hvar ‘where’

hvar (adv.): where

[2] hvar: brast 61, Flat, brast í Tóm

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sundr ‘asunder’

sundr (adv.): (a)sunder

[2] sundr: suðr 325V

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fló ‘flew’

fljúga (verb): fly

[2] fló (‘flꜹg’): om. 61, Flat, Tóm, var 325VII, flǫg E

notes

[2] fló ‘flew’: A sg. verb with coordinate subject (here mǫrg breið targa ok síðar brynjur ‘many a broad shield, and long mail-shirts’) is common in poetry (NS §70).

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targa ‘shield’

targa (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): shield

[2] targa: tjarga 972ˣ, 61

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brynjur ‘mail-shirts’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat

[3] brynjur: brynjar 972ˣ, ‘bryni[…]’ 325VI, ‘brynur’ 325V

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síðar ‘long’

1. síðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): long, hanging

[3] síðar: síðan 73aˣ

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borgum ‘towns’

borg (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -; -ir): city, stronghold

[4] borgum: ‘b[…]’ 325VI

notes

[4] of morgin; nær borgum ‘one morning; near towns’: Of morgin ‘one morning’ is construed in the present edn with stóðk ‘I stood’ (l. 1), and nær borgum ‘near towns’ with fló ‘(arrows) flew’ (l. 2). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by ÍF 28; Hkr 1991), interpreting borgum as ‘castles’, construes both phrases with stóðk, while Kock (NN §1875, followed by Olsen 1954, 192) construes them with fló ‘flew’. If the fighting described took place in the west (see Note to ll. 6, 7), nær borgum would help to make that clearer if construed with fló.

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nær ‘near’

nær (adv.): near, almost; when

[4] nær: mær 321ˣ, nærr 73aˣ, Flat

notes

[4] of morgin; nær borgum ‘one morning; near towns’: Of morgin ‘one morning’ is construed in the present edn with stóðk ‘I stood’ (l. 1), and nær borgum ‘near towns’ with fló ‘(arrows) flew’ (l. 2). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by ÍF 28; Hkr 1991), interpreting borgum as ‘castles’, construes both phrases with stóðk, while Kock (NN §1875, followed by Olsen 1954, 192) construes them with fló ‘flew’. If the fighting described took place in the west (see Note to ll. 6, 7), nær borgum would help to make that clearer if construed with fló.

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of ‘one’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[4] of: af 321ˣ

notes

[4] of morgin; nær borgum ‘one morning; near towns’: Of morgin ‘one morning’ is construed in the present edn with stóðk ‘I stood’ (l. 1), and nær borgum ‘near towns’ with fló ‘(arrows) flew’ (l. 2). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by ÍF 28; Hkr 1991), interpreting borgum as ‘castles’, construes both phrases with stóðk, while Kock (NN §1875, followed by Olsen 1954, 192) construes them with fló ‘flew’. If the fighting described took place in the west (see Note to ll. 6, 7), nær borgum would help to make that clearer if construed with fló.

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morgin ‘morning’

morginn (noun m.; °morgins, dat. morgni; morgnar): morning

notes

[4] of morgin; nær borgum ‘one morning; near towns’: Of morgin ‘one morning’ is construed in the present edn with stóðk ‘I stood’ (l. 1), and nær borgum ‘near towns’ with fló ‘(arrows) flew’ (l. 2). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by ÍF 28; Hkr 1991), interpreting borgum as ‘castles’, construes both phrases with stóðk, while Kock (NN §1875, followed by Olsen 1954, 192) construes them with fló ‘flew’. If the fighting described took place in the west (see Note to ll. 6, 7), nær borgum would help to make that clearer if construed with fló.

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Munða ‘recalled’

1. muna (verb): remember

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þanns ‘who’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[5] þanns (‘þann er’): so 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Kˣ, 39, F, J2ˣ, E, þar er Holm2, 972ˣ, er 325VI, 321ˣ, hann er 61, om. Tóm

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unnði ‘enjoyed’

1. unna (verb): love

[5] unnði: hendi 61, yndi 325V, endi Flat, ‘hemðe’ Tóm, varði 39, F

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ǫnd ‘early’

2. ǫnd (noun f.; °andar, dat. ǫnd/ǫndu; andir): soul, breath < ǫndverðr (adj.): early, beginning

[6] ǫnd‑: ‘on‑’ Bb

notes

[6, 7] þenna ǫndverðan brum ‘in that early period’: An adverbial acc. sg.; brum ‘bud, point of time’ is usually n., but a m. equivalent has been assumed (e.g. LP: brumr; ÍF 28). The phrase is taken here, as in Skj B, to qualify the vas-clause referring to Sigvatr’s father Þórðr. ÍF 28 and Hkr 1991 on the other hand take ǫndverðan brum with the un(n)ði-clause about Óláfr’s lordship (also qualified by forðum ‘formerly’), and they take þenna with the clause about Þórðr, where it stands for þenna brum ‘during that period’ or þenna dag ‘that day’. The exact reference of ǫndverðan brum is difficult to determine, but ‘early in Óláfr’s career’ fits the presumed facts, since Snorri tells us (ÓH 1941, I, 81, ÍF 27, 54) that Þórðr met and became the retainer of Óláfr while the young king was on his viking expedition in the west. For this reason, Olsen (1954, 192-3) takes the description of a battle in the first helmingr to be a report of what Sigvatr had heard from his father about this expedition.

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verðan ‘’

3. verðr (adj.): worth, worthy < ǫndverðr (adj.): early, beginning

[6] ‑verðan (‘‑urþan’): ‘‑urðum’ 972ˣ, ‑verðum Holm4, ‑varðar 325VII, ‘‑urnum’ J2ˣ, E

notes

[6, 7] þenna ǫndverðan brum ‘in that early period’: An adverbial acc. sg.; brum ‘bud, point of time’ is usually n., but a m. equivalent has been assumed (e.g. LP: brumr; ÍF 28). The phrase is taken here, as in Skj B, to qualify the vas-clause referring to Sigvatr’s father Þórðr. ÍF 28 and Hkr 1991 on the other hand take ǫndverðan brum with the un(n)ði-clause about Óláfr’s lordship (also qualified by forðum ‘formerly’), and they take þenna with the clause about Þórðr, where it stands for þenna brum ‘during that period’ or þenna dag ‘that day’. The exact reference of ǫndverðan brum is difficult to determine, but ‘early in Óláfr’s career’ fits the presumed facts, since Snorri tells us (ÓH 1941, I, 81, ÍF 27, 54) that Þórðr met and became the retainer of Óláfr while the young king was on his viking expedition in the west. For this reason, Olsen (1954, 192-3) takes the description of a battle in the first helmingr to be a report of what Sigvatr had heard from his father about this expedition.

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brum ‘period’

1. brum (noun n.): [period]

[6] brum: bryn 61, 325VII

notes

[6, 7] þenna ǫndverðan brum ‘in that early period’: An adverbial acc. sg.; brum ‘bud, point of time’ is usually n., but a m. equivalent has been assumed (e.g. LP: brumr; ÍF 28). The phrase is taken here, as in Skj B, to qualify the vas-clause referring to Sigvatr’s father Þórðr. ÍF 28 and Hkr 1991 on the other hand take ǫndverðan brum with the un(n)ði-clause about Óláfr’s lordship (also qualified by forðum ‘formerly’), and they take þenna with the clause about Þórðr, where it stands for þenna brum ‘during that period’ or þenna dag ‘that day’. The exact reference of ǫndverðan brum is difficult to determine, but ‘early in Óláfr’s career’ fits the presumed facts, since Snorri tells us (ÓH 1941, I, 81, ÍF 27, 54) that Þórðr met and became the retainer of Óláfr while the young king was on his viking expedition in the west. For this reason, Olsen (1954, 192-3) takes the description of a battle in the first helmingr to be a report of what Sigvatr had heard from his father about this expedition.

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lǫndum ‘his lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[6] lǫndum: landa 325VI, 321ˣ, J2ˣ, E, sundum 325V

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faðir ‘father’

faðir (noun m.): father

[7] faðir: ferð 61, Flat, Tóm

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minn ‘my’

minn (pron.; °f. mín, n. mitt): my

[7] minn: mín 61, 325V, Tóm

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[7] vas ‘was’: Kock (NN §2313) finds this too weak a word for the metrical position, and he proposes emending to vann ‘got’, but this is unnecessary, since the word is unstressed.

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[7] þar: so Kˣ, 39, F, þá Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 321ˣ, Holm4, 61, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, J2ˣ, E, þó 73aˣ

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þenna ‘in that’

1. sjá (pron.; °gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir): this

[7] þenna: þessa 325V

notes

[6, 7] þenna ǫndverðan brum ‘in that early period’: An adverbial acc. sg.; brum ‘bud, point of time’ is usually n., but a m. equivalent has been assumed (e.g. LP: brumr; ÍF 28). The phrase is taken here, as in Skj B, to qualify the vas-clause referring to Sigvatr’s father Þórðr. ÍF 28 and Hkr 1991 on the other hand take ǫndverðan brum with the un(n)ði-clause about Óláfr’s lordship (also qualified by forðum ‘formerly’), and they take þenna with the clause about Þórðr, where it stands for þenna brum ‘during that period’ or þenna dag ‘that day’. The exact reference of ǫndverðan brum is difficult to determine, but ‘early in Óláfr’s career’ fits the presumed facts, since Snorri tells us (ÓH 1941, I, 81, ÍF 27, 54) that Þórðr met and became the retainer of Óláfr while the young king was on his viking expedition in the west. For this reason, Olsen (1954, 192-3) takes the description of a battle in the first helmingr to be a report of what Sigvatr had heard from his father about this expedition.

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Þórrøðr ‘Þórðr’

Þórðr (noun m.): Þórðr

[8] Þórrøðr: ‘þororþr’ 972ˣ, ‘þorðre᷎ðr’ Holm4, ‘þordendr’ 61, Flat, ‘þoroðr’ 325V, J2ˣ, ‘þorręnðr’ 325VII, ‘þoradr’ Bb, ‘þorendr’ Tóm, ‘þororðr’ Kˣ, ‘þorðr’ 39

notes

[8] Þórrøðr ‘Þórðr’: Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’, who served Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson of Jómsborg, and then his brother Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’, before meeting Óláfr Haraldsson (ÍF 27, 54). Although the metre demands the older, disyllabic form Þórrøðr, the aðalhending, while adequate, would be improved by the assumption of the later, monosyllabic Þórðr (CVC: Þórr B).

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konung ‘the king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[8] konung: kóngr 972ˣ, om. Holm4, konungr 325V, Bb, Flat, 39, F, E, konungi Tóm

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forðum ‘once’

forðum (adv.): formerly, once

[8] forðum: vǫrðum 61

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

On his way home from a pilgrimage to Rome, Sigvatr learns of the death of King Óláfr in the battle of Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad), and it affects him greatly. He speaks this stanza.

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