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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Lv 15I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Lausavísur 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 717.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonLausavísur
141516

Gerðisk ‘would turn out’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[1] Gerðisk: gerðusk Holm4, gerði 61, 75c, Bb, Flat, Tóm, gerðu 325V

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hilmis ‘of the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[1] hilmis: hilmir 61, 75c, 325V, Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

hilmis Hǫrða,
‘of the ruler of the Hǫrðar ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the ruler of the Hǫrðar → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr
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Hǫrða ‘of the Hǫrðar’

Hǫrðar (noun m.): the Hǫrðar

[1] Hǫrða: om. 61, 325V, harða 75c, Bb, harðan Flat

kennings

hilmis Hǫrða,
‘of the ruler of the Hǫrðar ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the ruler of the Hǫrðar → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr
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hús ‘the house’

hús (noun n.; °-s; -): house < húskarl (noun m.): retainer

notes

[2] húskarlar ‘the housecarls’: On this term, see Note to Sigv Austv 18/4. 

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karlar ‘carls’

karl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): (old) man < húskarl (noun m.): retainer

[2] ‑karlar: ‑karla 61, Flat

notes

[2] húskarlar ‘the housecarls’: On this term, see Note to Sigv Austv 18/4. 

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þá ‘Then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[2] þá: þar Kˣ

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jarli ‘the jarl [Hákon]’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

[2] jarli: jarla Flat

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er ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] er: ef 321ˣ, Bb, Flat, ǫr 73aˣ, of 61

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Ôleifs ‘Óláfr’s’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[3] Ôleifs: ‘Ol’ Flat, ‘O’ Tóm

notes

[2, 4] ofvægir jarli ‘too compliant towards the jarl [Hákon]’: (a) Ofvægr is in this instance assumed to be etymologically related to vægja ‘to yield’ and væginn ‘yielding’ (so Skj B; LP: ofvægr 2). (b) Normally, ofvægr is a laudatory epithet applied to rulers (see LP: ofvægr 1) and meaning ‘invincible’, lit. ‘outweighing, over-powerful’ (cf. vega ‘to weigh, move’, vægi n. ‘weight’, vægr adj. ‘balancing’). This sense could be reconciled with the context by assuming a transferred sense ‘(morally) too heavy, bearing a weight of blame’ and taking jarli as a dat. of comparison, hence ‘more culpable than the jarl, more than the jarl's equal in treachery’ (so ÍF 27), but these assumptions are somewhat strained. 

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fjǫrvi ‘life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

[3] fjǫrvi: ‘fio᷎ríu’ 73aˣ

notes

[2, 4] ofvægir jarli ‘too compliant towards the jarl [Hákon]’: (a) Ofvægr is in this instance assumed to be etymologically related to vægja ‘to yield’ and væginn ‘yielding’ (so Skj B; LP: ofvægr 2). (b) Normally, ofvægr is a laudatory epithet applied to rulers (see LP: ofvægr 1) and meaning ‘invincible’, lit. ‘outweighing, over-powerful’ (cf. vega ‘to weigh, move’, vægi n. ‘weight’, vægr adj. ‘balancing’). This sense could be reconciled with the context by assuming a transferred sense ‘(morally) too heavy, bearing a weight of blame’ and taking jarli as a dat. of comparison, hence ‘more culpable than the jarl, more than the jarl's equal in treachery’ (so ÍF 27), but these assumptions are somewhat strained. 

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ofvægir ‘too compliant towards’

ofvægr (adj.): invincible, overwhelming

[4] ofvægir: so 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, J2ˣ, ‘of vegir’ Holm2, óvægir 972ˣ, 68, 75c, Bb, Flat, ‘u uæygir’ 61, óvæginn Tóm, ofvægs Kˣ

notes

[3] er ‘who’: The younger form er rather than es is required for the hending with fjǫrvi, as pointed out by Gering (1912, 136), who also surmised that Noreen (ANG §473) had this in mind when he stated that er rather than es in OWN is first attested in the works of Sigvatr. The rel. particle could alternatively be translated ‘when, if’ (so Skj B; ÍF 27; Hkr 1991).

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þægi ‘would accept’

þiggja (verb): receive, get

[4] þægi: ‘þæ̋gíur’ 73aˣ, þeygi 61

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esa ‘it is not’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] esa (‘era’): nam 61, 75c, Bb, Flat, er 325V, Tóm, Kˣ, J2ˣ

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verða ‘be’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[5] verða: virða 68, Tóm, varða Holm4

notes

[5, 6] verða fyr ‘be the subject of’: See LP: verða 13 for parallels.

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ligt ‘’

-ligr (adj.): -ly < háligr (adj.): noble

[6] ‑ligt: ‑leitt 73aˣ, 68, ‘‑leggs’ 61, ‑leit 75c, 325V, Bb, Flat, Tóm

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fyr ‘the subject of’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[6] fyr: í Tóm

notes

[5, 6] verða fyr ‘be the subject of’: See LP: verða 13 for parallels.

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ef ‘if’

3. ef (conj.): if

[7] ef: er Flat, of Tóm

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allir ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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erum ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[8] erum vír (‘ero ver’): erum vit 972ˣ, Noregs 61

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vír ‘we’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

[8] erum vír (‘ero ver’): erum vit 972ˣ, Noregs 61

notes

[8] vír ‘we’: Although this is the spelling of no ms. (all have ‘ver’ or ‘vær’, except for 972ˣva and 61), the aðalhending demands this older form of vér, and no other reading will suffice (Nj 1875-8, II, 200-1).

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of ‘of’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[8] of: ‘kymrir’ Bb

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svik ‘treason’

1. svik (noun n.; °-s; -): deceit, treachery; poison

[8] svik: om. Kˣ, J2ˣ

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skírir ‘cleared’

2. skírr (adj.): pure, bright

[8] skírir: skærir 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Tóm, slíkir 61, kyrir Bb

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Immediately after the two preceding vísur it is said that people discuss how ill it became Hákon jarl Eiríksson to be leading an army against King Óláfr, since the king had spared his life when the jarl had come into his power (see ÓH 1941, I, 64-5; ÍF 27, 37-8). But Sigvatr has been on close terms with the jarl, and when he hears such things said, he speaks this stanza.

[2]: The line recalls Sigv Austv 18/4 (and Hharð Lv 6/8II). 

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