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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Nesv 11I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Nesjavísur 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 572.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonNesjavísur
101112

Þess ‘this’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[1] Þess: þat var þess Bb

notes

[1] getk þess meir ‘I declare this, moreover’: The clause demarcation here follows Kock (NN §1860). Meir ‘more’ could alternatively qualify missi ‘will be missing’ (so Skj B).

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getk ‘I declare’

2. geta (verb): to beget, give birth to, mention, speak of; to think well of, like, love

[1] getk (‘get ec’): gekk ek Holm2

notes

[1] getk þess meir ‘I declare this, moreover’: The clause demarcation here follows Kock (NN §1860). Meir ‘more’ could alternatively qualify missi ‘will be missing’ (so Skj B).

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meir ‘moreover’

meiri (adj. comp.; °meiran; superl. mestr): more, most

[1] meir: ‘me[…]’ R686ˣ, meir added in margin 325VI

notes

[1] getk þess meir ‘I declare this, moreover’: The clause demarcation here follows Kock (NN §1860). Meir ‘more’ could alternatively qualify missi ‘will be missing’ (so Skj B).

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[1] at: om. 325VI

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missi ‘will be missing’

2. missa (verb): lose, lack

notes

[1] missi ‘will be missing out on’: ÓH-Hkr appears to have interpreted the pres. subj. form missi as indicating that st. 11 was composed before the full outcome of the battle was known (see Context above). Fsk by contrast states explicitly that all the stanzas it includes belong within Nesv (see Introduction).

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morðit ‘’

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morð ‘a battle’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðárr (noun m.)

[2] morðôrr: ‘morð[...]’ Holm2, morðit 78aˣ

kennings

harða margr morðôrr,
‘very many a battle-envoy, ’
   = WARRIOR

very many a battle-envoy, → WARRIOR
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ôrr ‘envoy’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger < morðárr (noun m.)

[2] morðôrr: ‘morð[...]’ Holm2, morðit 78aˣ

kennings

harða margr morðôrr,
‘very many a battle-envoy, ’
   = WARRIOR

very many a battle-envoy, → WARRIOR
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fór ‘travelled’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[2] fór: kom Holm2, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, Holm4

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njorðan ‘’

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

[2] norðan: norðar Holm2, ‘niorðan’ J1ˣ

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harða ‘very’

harða (adv.): very

[3] harða: harðla 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ

kennings

harða margr morðôrr,
‘very many a battle-envoy, ’
   = WARRIOR

very many a battle-envoy, → WARRIOR
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margr ‘many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[3] margr: ‘ma[…]gr’ R686ˣ, magr 325V

kennings

harða margr morðôrr,
‘very many a battle-envoy, ’
   = WARRIOR

very many a battle-envoy, → WARRIOR
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hǫrðum ‘hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[3] hǫrðum: hǫrgum R686ˣ

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sinði ‘’

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sunda ‘of the sounds’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

[5] sunda: so R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, syndi Kˣ, Holm2, ‘sinþi’ papp18ˣ, sundi Bb

kennings

blakki sunda
‘the dark steed of the sounds ’
   = SHIP

the dark steed of the sounds → SHIP
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blakki ‘the dark steed’

1. blakkr (noun m.): horse

[5] blakki: blakk 325V

kennings

blakki sunda
‘the dark steed of the sounds ’
   = SHIP

the dark steed of the sounds → SHIP
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sunnum ‘’

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sunnu ‘with the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

[6] sunnu: sunnum Holm2, 325V, Bb, Tóm

notes

[6, 8] mǫrg samknúta sunnu ‘many a one joined with the sun’: The phrase samknúta sunnu, although kenning-like, remains mysterious, and none of the available solutions is wholly satisfactory. (a) Just conceivably, Sigvatr is stigmatising the Trøndelag faction as heathen sun-worshippers (‘adherents of the sun’): on sun-worship in Norway, see Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson (1997, 126-9). The tenacity of Trøndelag and contiguous regions in maintaining pre-Christian worship under the Hlaðajarlar was notorious. The f. gender of samknúta would be unusual, and presumably insulting, in reference to warriors. (b) Finnur Jónsson’s tentative ‘knuckle-bone of the sun of the sea [GOLD > MAN (?)]’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; also ÍF 27), is unconvincing. (c) Hjelmqvist (1913, 7), followed by Kock (NN §622), emends sunnu to sunnan, linking this with the variant reading margr so as to result in mången söderifrå ‘many from the south’; in this analysis the cpd samknúta is used substantively, to mean ‘[ships] bound together’ (1913, 19). This produces good sense but the presumed corruption of sunnan would be difficult to account for.

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mǫrg ‘Many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[6] mǫrg: ‘morgt’ Holm2, margr R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, Bb

notes

[6, 8] mǫrg samknúta sunnu ‘many a one joined with the sun’: The phrase samknúta sunnu, although kenning-like, remains mysterious, and none of the available solutions is wholly satisfactory. (a) Just conceivably, Sigvatr is stigmatising the Trøndelag faction as heathen sun-worshippers (‘adherents of the sun’): on sun-worship in Norway, see Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson (1997, 126-9). The tenacity of Trøndelag and contiguous regions in maintaining pre-Christian worship under the Hlaðajarlar was notorious. The f. gender of samknúta would be unusual, and presumably insulting, in reference to warriors. (b) Finnur Jónsson’s tentative ‘knuckle-bone of the sun of the sea [GOLD > MAN (?)]’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; also ÍF 27), is unconvincing. (c) Hjelmqvist (1913, 7), followed by Kock (NN §622), emends sunnu to sunnan, linking this with the variant reading margr so as to result in mången söderifrå ‘many from the south’; in this analysis the cpd samknúta is used substantively, to mean ‘[ships] bound together’ (1913, 19). This produces good sense but the presumed corruption of sunnan would be difficult to account for.

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satt ‘true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

[7] satts (‘satt er’): satt var 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 68, 61, satt 75a, ‘sartt er’ Bb

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s ‘it is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[7] satts (‘satt er’): satt var 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 68, 61, satt 75a, ‘sartt er’ Bb

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[7] at: om. Holm4

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mœttum ‘met’

mega (verb): may, might

[7] mœttum: máttum Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 78aˣ, 325V, 325VII, Tóm, máttu Flat

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samknúta ‘a one joined’

samknúta (noun f.): [a one joined]

[8] samknúta (‘sám knuta’): ‘sa[…]vta’ Holm2, sann knúta 972ˣ, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

notes

[6, 8] mǫrg samknúta sunnu ‘many a one joined with the sun’: The phrase samknúta sunnu, although kenning-like, remains mysterious, and none of the available solutions is wholly satisfactory. (a) Just conceivably, Sigvatr is stigmatising the Trøndelag faction as heathen sun-worshippers (‘adherents of the sun’): on sun-worship in Norway, see Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson (1997, 126-9). The tenacity of Trøndelag and contiguous regions in maintaining pre-Christian worship under the Hlaðajarlar was notorious. The f. gender of samknúta would be unusual, and presumably insulting, in reference to warriors. (b) Finnur Jónsson’s tentative ‘knuckle-bone of the sun of the sea [GOLD > MAN (?)]’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; also ÍF 27), is unconvincing. (c) Hjelmqvist (1913, 7), followed by Kock (NN §622), emends sunnu to sunnan, linking this with the variant reading margr so as to result in mången söderifrå ‘many from the south’; in this analysis the cpd samknúta is used substantively, to mean ‘[ships] bound together’ (1913, 19). This produces good sense but the presumed corruption of sunnan would be difficult to account for.

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The stanza follows a lengthy account of the battle and its aftermath. Sigvatr is said to have spoken this, and sts 12 and 14, during the battle.

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