skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Anon Leið 14VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Leiðarvísan 14’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 153-4.

Anonymous PoemsLeiðarvísan
131415

Yfirþengill skóp engla
einn sunnudag hreina;
sǫnn hefr siklingr unnit
slík verk himinríkis.
Ok heimstýrir, harra,
heppinn, þás skóp skepnu
þann setti dag, dróttinn
dýrðar mildr, til hvílðar.

Einn yfirþengill skóp hreina engla sunnudag; {siklingr himinríkis} hefr unnit slík sǫnn verk; ok {heppinn heimstýrir} setti þann dag til hvílðar, þás {dróttinn harra}, dýrðar mildr, skóp skepnu.

The one overlord created the pure angels on a Sunday; {the king of the heaven-kingdom} [= God] has performed true deeds such as these; and {the fortunate world-ruler} [= God] established that day for rest, when {the lord of lords} [= God], generous in glory, brought creation into being

Mss: B(10v), 624(87)

Readings: [5] heimstýrir: heimstýris B, 624;    harra: ‘harre’ B, 624

Editions: Skj AI, 621, Skj BI, 625-6, Skald I, 304, NN §1262; Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 61, Rydberg 1907, 6, Attwood 1996a, 63, 174.

Notes: [All]: St. 14 begins the stefjabalkr, in which the poet enumerates a number of significant events in Christian history that took place on a Sunday. Sts 14-16 deal with events from the Book of Genesis. — [1-2] einn yfirþengill skóp hreina engla sunnudag ‘the one overlord created the pure angels on a Sunday’: Einn ‘one’ could also be construed with sunnudag ‘Sunday’ (l. 2). Although the creation of the angels is not biblical, references to it are widespread in early apocryphal tradition, as, for example in the Book of Jubilees II.2; see Charles 1913, II, 13 and Lees 1985, 140. It is often mentioned in the Sunday Lists included in versions of the Sunday Letter, across all recensions. In the two MHG homilies containing freestanding Sunday Lists (see Introduction), the creation of the angels is the first event listed. On the relationships between Leið, the MHG sermons and other texts in the Sunday Letter/List traditions, see Attwood 2003. — [5-8]: Sveinbjörn Egilson offers an alternative interpretation in a marginal note to Jón Sigurðsson’s transcription of the 624 text in 444(2)ˣ. He retains B’s readings heimstýris harri in l. 5, taking heimstýrir ‘steerer of the world’ as a kenning for the sun, whose harri m. ‘lord, king’ is God. He construes ok þá’s heppinn harri heimstýris skóp skepnu, setti dýrðarmildr dróttinn þann dag til hvílðar ‘and when the fortunate lord of the steerer of the world [SUN > = God] created the race of men, the glory-generous lord established that day as a time of rest’. This makes for a neat, balanced arrangement, in which the two couplets make independent sense. However, the sun is not generally, in Leið or the other C12th drápur, designated by a cpd, figurative expression, but is invariably the prosaic element in kennings for both heaven and God, rendered by sunna, sól or rǫðull. Stýrir appears elsewhere in Leið only in expressions for God (see 3/5, 27/2, 21/3). It therefore seems unlikely that Leið would adopt such a different technique only here as Sveinbjörn’s interpretation would require. Here ms. ‘harre’ has been emended to harra ‘of lords’ to produce a God-kenning; cf. Geisl 25/7-8 dyrr lét dróttinn harra | dáðmilds. — [5-8]: God’s establishment of Sunday as a day of rest is recorded in Gen. II.2: conplevitque Deus die septimo opus suum quod fecerat et requievit die septimo ab universo opere quod patrarat ‘and on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made: and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done’. — [5-6]: These ll. are echoed in 21/3-4: heims stýrandinn hár*i | hallar skepnu allri.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. Attwood, Katrina. 1996a. ‘The Poems of MS AM 757a 4to: An Edition and Contextual Study’. Ph.D. thesis. University of Leeds.
  5. Attwood, Katrina. 2003. ‘Leiðarvísan and the “Sunday Letter” Tradition in Iceland’. In Svanhildur Óskarsdóttir et al. 2003, 53-78.
  6. Charles, R. H., ed. 1913. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon.
  7. Rydberg, Hugo, ed. 1907. ‘Die geistlichen Drápur und Dróttkvættfragmente des Cod. AM 757 4to.’. Ph.D. thesis. University of Lund. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. Lees, Clare A. 1985. ‘The “Sunday Letter” and the “Sunday Lists”’. ASE 14, 129-51.
  9. Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1844. Fjøgur gømul kvæði. Boðsrit til að hlusta á þá opinberu yfirheyrslu í Bessastaða Skóla þann 22-29 mai 1844. Viðeyar Klaustri: prentuð af Helga Helgasyni, á kostnað Bessastaða Skóla. Bessastaðir: Helgi Helgason.
  10. Internal references
  11. Katrina Attwood 2007, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Leiðarvísan’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 137-78.
  12. Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 25’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 27.
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.