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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Knútdr 5I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Knútsdrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 656.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonKnútsdrápa
456

Lét ‘had’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] Lét *: lét um FskBˣ, DG8

notes

[1] lét * ‘had’: Lét um in the mss is unmetrical and the prep. um (or normalised of) ‘around’ (?) would be redundant in the helmingr. Um is therefore omitted here, as in Skj B and Skald.

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* ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[1] Lét *: lét um FskBˣ, DG8

notes

[1] lét * ‘had’: Lét um in the mss is unmetrical and the prep. um (or normalised of) ‘around’ (?) would be redundant in the helmingr. Um is therefore omitted here, as in Skj B and Skald.

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lǫnd ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[1] lǫnd: land DG8, 972ˣ

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liðs ‘of the army’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

[2] liðs: lið 972ˣ

notes

[2] liðs ‘of the army’: Skj B suggests liðs qualifies nefbjǫrgum rather than gramr, hence ‘by the army’s nose-guards’; this is queried by Kock (NN §873).

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gramr ‘The lord’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together

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mar ‘the sea’

1. marr (noun m.): sea < marbeðr (noun m.)

notes

[3] marbe*ðjum ‘the sea-coasts’: Literally ‘sea-beds’, but here more probably the sea-coasts (cf. LP: marbeðr). The <r> in the FskBˣ reading is clearly a scribal error.

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be*ðjum ‘coasts’

beðr (noun m.; °dat. -/-i; -ir, dat. -jum): bed < marbeðr (noun m.)

[3] ‑be*ðjum: ‘berðiom’ FskBˣ, biðjum DG8, 972ˣ

notes

[3] marbe*ðjum ‘the sea-coasts’: Literally ‘sea-beds’, but here more probably the sea-coasts (cf. LP: marbeðr). The <r> in the FskBˣ reading is clearly a scribal error.

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með ‘along’

með (prep.): with

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nefbjǫrgum ‘by nose-guards’

nefbjǫrg (noun f.): [by nose-guards]

notes

[4] nefbjǫrgum ‘by nose-guards’: Hence, by pars pro toto, helmets, or helmeted warriors.

Close

þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

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gnóð ‘the ship’

Gnoð (noun f.): ship, Gnóð

notes

[5] gnóð ‘the ship’: Gnóð is recorded in various fornaldarsögur as the name of a ship owned by the legendary Gnóðar-Ásmundr (see SnE 1998, II, 464); it also occurs in Anon Mhkv 8/5III and in Þul Skipa 3/1III. As LP: Gnóð notes, the length of the vowel is uncertain. LP, Skj B and Skald treat it as long, but SnE 1998 as short.

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grôum ‘grey’

grár (adj.; °gráan/grán): grey

[6] grôum: gráni DG8, 972ˣ

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þorn ‘of the thorn’

1. þorn (noun m.; °; -ar): thorn < þornheimr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

þorn ‘of the thorn’

1. þorn (noun m.; °; -ar): thorn < þornheimr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

þorn ‘of the thorn’

1. þorn (noun m.; °; -ar): thorn < þornheimr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

heims ‘of the home’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < þornheimr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

heims ‘of the home’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < þornheimr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

þrimu ‘of battle’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

þrimu ‘of battle’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

þrimu ‘of battle’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[7] þrimu þornheims ‘of the home of the thorn of battle [(lit. ‘thorn-home of battle’) SWORD > SHIELD]’: In NN §648 Kock takes ‘the home of the sword’ to be the sheath, but on reconsideration in NN §2924 suggests rather it is the shield.

Close

Þundi ‘the Þundr’

Þundr (noun m.): Þundr

[8] Þundi at *undri: ‘þyndr of fyndri’ FskBˣ, ‘þyrndrof ryndri’ DG8, ‘þirn drof eyndri’ 972ˣ

kennings

þrimu þornheims Þundi.
‘thorn-home of battle’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the thorn of battle. → SWORD
the home of the SWORD → SHIELD
the Þundr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Óláfr
Close

at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[8] Þundi at *undri: ‘þyndr of fyndri’ FskBˣ, ‘þyrndrof ryndri’ DG8, ‘þirn drof eyndri’ 972ˣ

Close

*undri ‘the wonder’

2. undr (noun n.; °-s; -): wonder, marvel

[8] Þundi at *undri: ‘þyndr of fyndri’ FskBˣ, ‘þyrndrof ryndri’ DG8, ‘þirn drof eyndri’ 972ˣ

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 3 above.

Ms. 972ˣ preserves a text of this stanza which seems to derive from the lost Uppsala ms. (*U) of ÓH. — Although it means that the term gramr ‘lord’ alludes to Óláfr in st. 4/2 but to Knútr in l. 2 of this stanza (and lið ‘fleet, army’ is also repeated from st. 3/6 with changed reference), the most likely interpretation of this stanza is that the first helmingr describes Knútr’s military defences in Denmark (or at least Zealand), and the second helmingr Óláfr’s consternation at encountering those defences. — [5-8]: This helmingr is extremely difficult to construe, and all eds suggest varying degrees of emendation (except for ÍF 29, which emends hjǫlmum to hjǫlmun in l. 6, perhaps unwittingly, but does not attempt a translation). (a) Kock’s proposed emendations are modest, and yield good sense, both in terms of the resultant kenning and the larger structure of the stanza (NN §§648, 2924; Skald). They are consequently adopted here, as also in ÓHLeg 1982, although the phrase garðr grôum hjǫlmum ‘wall (made) of grey helmets’ is perhaps slightly forced. (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B emends very heavily indeed, suggesting the following: þars garðr fyr gnóð | grô hjǫlmunlô, | þreifsk brims þruma | Þundar umb ǫndur ‘where the grey billow resounded before the ship, the thunder of Þundr <= Óðinn> [BATTLE] flourished around the ski of the surf [SHIP]’. Finnur marks garðr in his prose order (and in LP: garðr 8) as uninterpretable, and seems to see it as a corruption of a verb ‘resounded’; he also hesitates over the ship-kenning. In Þul Á 4/3III, Hjalmunlá or Hjǫlmunlá is a river-name, but here Finnur takes it to be a wave or billow.

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