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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Erlfl 10I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Flokkr about Erlingr Skjálgsson 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 642.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonFlokkr about Erlingr Skjálgsson
910

Erlingi ‘Erlingr’

Erlingr (noun m.): Erlingr

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varð ‘There was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[1] varð: var Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Tóm, 325VIII 2 g, Bb(104rb)

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lendra ‘among district’

lendr (adj.): landed

notes

[2] lendra manna (gen. pl.) ‘among district chieftains’: Lit. ‘landed men’. In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 80), the term lendir menn is equated with hersar and explained as men appointed by the king to serve as judicial administrators over one or more districts; see also Note to Þham Magndr 1/6-7II

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manna ‘chieftains’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[2] manna: drengja Bb(130va)

notes

[2] lendra manna (gen. pl.) ‘among district chieftains’: Lit. ‘landed men’. In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 80), the term lendir menn is equated with hersar and explained as men appointed by the king to serve as judicial administrators over one or more districts; see also Note to Þham Magndr 1/6-7II

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ǫrr ‘bold’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

[3] ǫrr: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325V, 54, ór er Kˣ, 61(70rb), ‘orr’ Holm2, 325VIII 2 g, Bb(104rb), ok 75c, ‘ar’ Bb(130va), ‘oręrr’ 53

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sás ‘who’

sás (conj.): the one who

[3] sás (‘sa er’): sá at 78aˣ

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fleiri ‘more’

fleiri (adj. comp.; °superl. flestr): more, most

[3] fleiri: ‘storri’ R686ˣ

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orrostur ‘battles’

orrusta (noun f.; °-u; -ur): battle

[4] orrostur stoð þorrinn: stoð þorinn orrostu Bb(130va)

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stoð ‘of support’

stoð (noun f.; °-ar; stoðir, stoðar, stoðr, steðr, støðr): support, post

[4] orrostur stoð þorrinn: stoð þorinn orrostu Bb(130va);    stoð þorrinn: fjǫlkostigr J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ

notes

[4] þorrinn stoð ‘deprived of support’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) prefers the reading fjǫlkostigr ‘with many virtues’ which suits the context of general praise in the preceding prose. However, the best mss, and the majority, have the lectio difficilior of stoð þorrinn. Jón Skaptason (1983) takes this to refer to Erlingr’s reduced circumstances after the death of his patron Óláfr Tryggvason, as related in the preceding prose. However, coupled with the reference in l. 8 to Erlingr being the last to leave battles, the image of his being deprived of the support of his king may rather conjure up Erlingr’s final battle and his betrayal by Óláfr Haraldsson, which are the subject of most of the other surviving stanzas of this poem (cf. ÍF 27, 29 n., and see Introduction above).

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þorrinn ‘deprived’

1. þverra (verb): diminish

[4] orrostur stoð þorrinn: stoð þorinn orrostu Bb(130va);    stoð þorrinn: fjǫlkostigr J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ

notes

[4] þorrinn stoð ‘deprived of support’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) prefers the reading fjǫlkostigr ‘with many virtues’ which suits the context of general praise in the preceding prose. However, the best mss, and the majority, have the lectio difficilior of stoð þorrinn. Jón Skaptason (1983) takes this to refer to Erlingr’s reduced circumstances after the death of his patron Óláfr Tryggvason, as related in the preceding prose. However, coupled with the reference in l. 8 to Erlingr being the last to leave battles, the image of his being deprived of the support of his king may rather conjure up Erlingr’s final battle and his betrayal by Óláfr Haraldsson, which are the subject of most of the other surviving stanzas of this poem (cf. ÍF 27, 29 n., and see Introduction above).

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við ‘in’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[5] við sóknir: so Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 75c, Bb(130va), 61(70rb), 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb(104rb), til sóknar Kˣ, at sinni 325V

notes

[5-6] bar ... þrek sinn við sóknir ‘deployed his stamina ... in onslaughts’: Við sóknir ‘in onslaughts’ is preferred here, as the reading of the overwhelming majority of mss; the verb bar is here understood in the sense of ‘possess a quality’ (LP: bera 9; Fritzner: bera 10), hence ‘deploy’. The reading of the main ms., til sóknar ‘into the onslaught’, makes sense if we understand bera to mean ‘carry’, so that Erlingr ‘carried his stamina to battle’ (similarly Hkr 1991).

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sóknir ‘onslaughts’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight

[5] við sóknir: so Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 75c, Bb(130va), 61(70rb), 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb(104rb), til sóknar Kˣ, at sinni 325V

notes

[5-6] bar ... þrek sinn við sóknir ‘deployed his stamina ... in onslaughts’: Við sóknir ‘in onslaughts’ is preferred here, as the reading of the overwhelming majority of mss; the verb bar is here understood in the sense of ‘possess a quality’ (LP: bera 9; Fritzner: bera 10), hence ‘deploy’. The reading of the main ms., til sóknar ‘into the onslaught’, makes sense if we understand bera to mean ‘carry’, so that Erlingr ‘carried his stamina to battle’ (similarly Hkr 1991).

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sinn ‘utmost’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[6] sinn þvít fyrst gekk innan: snarr í éli darra 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, sín ok gekk fyr innan 325V

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þvít ‘because’

þvít (conj.): because, since

[6] sinn þvít fyrst gekk innan: snarr í éli darra 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, sín ok gekk fyr innan 325V

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fyrst ‘first’

fyrstr (num. ordinal): first

[6] sinn þvít fyrst gekk innan: snarr í éli darra 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, sín ok gekk fyr innan 325V

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gekk ‘he went’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[6] sinn þvít fyrst gekk innan: snarr í éli darra 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, sín ok gekk fyr innan 325V

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innan ‘into’

innan (prep.): inside, within

[6] sinn þvít fyrst gekk innan: snarr í éli darra 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, sín ok gekk fyr innan 325V

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hildi ‘fight’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

[7] hildi: hild 325V

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en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[8] en: er 321ˣ

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ór ‘out’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[8] ór á: aura R686ˣ;    ór: ‘orr’ Holm2, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb(104rb), ǫrr J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325V, ‘ęr’ Bb(130va)

notes

[8] ór á lesti ‘out as the last’: Several mss read ǫrr at flestu ‘valiant in most situations’ which, assuming litotes, delivers general praise, but loses the contrast between Erlingr’s zeal to enter battles and reluctance to leave them.

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á ‘as’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[8] ór á: aura R686ˣ;    á lesti: at flestu J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325V, lesti Bb(130va)

notes

[8] ór á lesti ‘out as the last’: Several mss read ǫrr at flestu ‘valiant in most situations’ which, assuming litotes, delivers general praise, but loses the contrast between Erlingr’s zeal to enter battles and reluctance to leave them.

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lesti ‘the last’

lesti (noun n.): end, the last

[8] á lesti: at flestu J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325V, lesti Bb(130va)

notes

[8] ór á lesti ‘out as the last’: Several mss read ǫrr at flestu ‘valiant in most situations’ which, assuming litotes, delivers general praise, but loses the contrast between Erlingr’s zeal to enter battles and reluctance to leave them.

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Erlingr’s qualities are listed and he is compared with Óláfr Tryggvason.

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