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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv ErfÓl 9I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 676.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonErfidrápa Óláfs helga
8910

Olmr ‘rages’

olma (verb): [rages]

[1] Olmr: ‘O[…]r’ 325VII

notes

[1] erumk olmr ‘rages at me’: Lit. ‘is furious to me’.

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erumk ‘at me’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] erumk: erumsk Holm4, 61, Tóm, er um Flat

notes

[1] erumk olmr ‘rages at me’: Lit. ‘is furious to me’.

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harmr ‘The grief’

1. harmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sorrow, grief

[1] harmr: ‘[…]’ Bb

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sás ‘that’

sás (conj.): the one who

[1] sás hilmir (‘sa er hilmir’): ‘[…]’ Bb

notes

[1] sás ‘that’: (a) This is a demonstrative pron. + rel. particle es, referring back to harmr ‘grief’. (b) Skj B, Skald and ÍF 27 take sás as a conj. introducing the following clause, and take hafði aflfátt together, hence ‘that he had little support’. However, although (e)s can in some cases be a conj. equivalent to at ‘that’ (LP: es 7), would then be taken with the previous clause, and since it is unstressed that is not possible.

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hilmir ‘the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[1] sás hilmir (‘sa er hilmir’): ‘[…]’ Bb

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hafði ‘had’

hafa (verb): have

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golli ‘with gold’

gull (noun n.): gold

notes

[2, 4] meðalkafla, vafðan golli ‘the sword-grip, wound about with gold’: For an example of a late Viking Age sword with gold wire wound around its grip, see Graham-Campbell (1980, 70-1, 246). Vafðan golli is also found in st. 27/3, 4 and Þfisk Lv 1/6II.

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vafðan ‘wound about’

2. vefja (verb): wrap

[2] vafðan: ‘vafða[…]’ 325VII

notes

[2, 4] meðalkafla, vafðan golli ‘the sword-grip, wound about with gold’: For an example of a late Viking Age sword with gold wire wound around its grip, see Graham-Campbell (1980, 70-1, 246). Vafðan golli is also found in st. 27/3, 4 and Þfisk Lv 1/6II.

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jǫfurr ‘prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[3] jǫfurr: ‘[…]fur’ 325VII

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kreisti ‘clenched’

kreysa (verb): press against, clench

[3] kreisti: kærsti 61, ‘ræ[…]’ with ‘kre[…]’ above the line 325VII

notes

[3] kreisti ‘clenched’: The form seems to be a slight licence, since the 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of kreista is normally kreistaði.

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austan ‘from the east’

austan (adv.): from the east

notes

[3-4] aflfátt austan ‘with scant support from the east’: Aflfátt is only otherwise attested in the form aflafátt (see Fritzner: aflafár). It is taken here as an adverbial n. adj. (cf. verða e-m aflafátt ‘sby has little support’). As an alternative to the present construal, aflfátt austan could be taken with the rel. clause: sás hilmir hafði, aflfátt austan ‘that the ruler had with scant support from the east’. Either way the reference is to poor support from the east, i.e. from the Swedes: see Note to st. 8/5.

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aflfátt ‘with scant support’

aflfár (adj.): with scant support

[4] aflfátt: aflat J2ˣ, 61, Tóm, afl sitt 321ˣ

notes

[3-4] aflfátt austan ‘with scant support from the east’: Aflfátt is only otherwise attested in the form aflafátt (see Fritzner: aflafár). It is taken here as an adverbial n. adj. (cf. verða e-m aflafátt ‘sby has little support’). As an alternative to the present construal, aflfátt austan could be taken with the rel. clause: sás hilmir hafði, aflfátt austan ‘that the ruler had with scant support from the east’. Either way the reference is to poor support from the east, i.e. from the Swedes: see Note to st. 8/5.

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meðal ‘the sword’

meðal (prep.): between < meðalkafli (noun m.): sword-hilt

notes

[2, 4] meðalkafla, vafðan golli ‘the sword-grip, wound about with gold’: For an example of a late Viking Age sword with gold wire wound around its grip, see Graham-Campbell (1980, 70-1, 246). Vafðan golli is also found in st. 27/3, 4 and Þfisk Lv 1/6II.

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kafla ‘grip’

kafli (noun m.; °-a; dat. *-um): °kævle, aflangt træstykke (som holder fiskegarn flydende); afrevet stykke/del (af ngt), (is)flage < meðalkafli (noun m.): sword-hilt

notes

[2, 4] meðalkafla, vafðan golli ‘the sword-grip, wound about with gold’: For an example of a late Viking Age sword with gold wire wound around its grip, see Graham-Campbell (1980, 70-1, 246). Vafðan golli is also found in st. 27/3, 4 and Þfisk Lv 1/6II.

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Gagn ‘victory’

1. gagn (noun n.): victory

[5] Gagn: ‘g[…]n’ 325VII

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því ‘because’

því (adv.): therefore, because

[5] því: þar 321ˣ, 61

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þegnar ‘The subjects’

þegn (noun m.; °dat. -/-i; -ar): thane, man, franklin

notes

[5] þegnar ‘the subjects’: These are the landowners who should have been loyal to the king. For the suggestion that this term implies internal opposition in the late Viking Age, see Jesch (1993a, 167-9; Jesch 2001a, 225). In the prose sources, Óláfr’s opponents are normally called bœndr ‘farmers’ (cf. st. 11/4, with the earlier form búendr).

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at ‘’

4. at (conj.): that

[6] at: eru 61, er 325VII, Flat, Tóm

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hôlfu ‘twice’

halfr (adj.): half

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fleiri ‘as many’

fleiri (adj. comp.; °superl. flestr): more, most

[6] fleiri: fleiri vôru Tóm

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hvǫtuð ‘the inciter’

hvǫtuðr (noun m.): inciter

[7] hvǫtuð: hvata J2ˣ, 321ˣ, hvǫtuðr 61

kennings

hvǫtuð hildar;
‘the inciter of battle; ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the inciter of battle; → WARRIOR = Óláfr
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tælði ‘ensnared’

tæla (verb): entice

[7] tælði: talði 61, tælðu Tóm

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hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

[7] hildar: haulda 321ˣ

kennings

hvǫtuð hildar;
‘the inciter of battle; ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the inciter of battle; → WARRIOR = Óláfr
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hvôrungi ‘neither side’

2. hvergi (pron.): not, nowhere, neither

[8] hvôrungi: hvártveggi 61

notes

[8] frýk hvôrungi ‘I fault neither side’: Jón Skaptason (1983) suggests that this is ‘for not showing prowess in battle’, and indeed the verb frýja ‘reproach, fault’ most frequently involves questioning of courage (cf. LP: frýja and see st. 17/4 below).

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frýk ‘I fault’

2. frýja (verb): reproach, complain

[8] frýk (‘fry ec’): frá ek Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Holm4, 325VII, frýju 61

notes

[8] frýk hvôrungi ‘I fault neither side’: Jón Skaptason (1983) suggests that this is ‘for not showing prowess in battle’, and indeed the verb frýja ‘reproach, fault’ most frequently involves questioning of courage (cf. LP: frýja and see st. 17/4 below).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

King Óláfr’s army and that of the farmers and magnates approach each other at Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad). Óláfr and his troop, awaiting the support of Dagr Hringsson (a kinsman of Óláfr, ÍF 27, 348-9) and his troop, finally catch sight of their approach. It is said that the opposing farmers’ army had ‘a hundred hundreds’ of men.

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