skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Sigv ErfÓl 4I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 670.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonErfidrápa Óláfs helga
345

opt ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

[1] opt: om. 325V

Close

þeirs ‘Those who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[1] þeirs (‘þeir er’): þeim er papp18ˣ, þeir 321ˣ, þar er Flat

Close

ollu ‘carried out’

valda (verb): cause

Close

út ‘plundering’

út (adv.): out(side) < úthlaup (noun n.): plundering expedition

[2] úthlaupum: út hlupum Tóm

Close

gram ‘prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[2] gram: grams J2ˣ

Close

kaupask ‘to buy themselves’

kaupa (verb): buy

[2] kaupask: kaupa J2ˣ

Close

rautt ‘red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red

[3] rautt: rétt 61

Close

ræsir ‘the ruler’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

Close

neitti ‘refused’

1. neita (verb): refuse

[3] neitti: so papp18ˣ, 321ˣ, 68, 325V, 325XI 2 g, neytti Kˣ, netti Holm2, nítti J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, Bb, Flat, ‘⸜n⸝atti’ 61, veitti Tóm

notes

[3] neitti ‘refused’: Neitti and nítti (as in several ÓH mss) are from neita and níta, both weak verbs meaning ‘to say no, refuse’, and both are metrically possible. However, the variant neytti (from neyta ‘to use, enjoy’) and the other variants suggest an original neitti (as in papp18ˣ, an independent copy of K).

Close

lunduðum ‘spirited’

lundaðr (adj./verb p.p.): minded < ríklundaðr (adj./verb p.p.): proud-minded

[4] ‑lunduðum: ‑lynduðum Bb

Close

undan ‘off’

undan (adv.): away, away from

[4] undan: slíku 68

Close

Skǫr ‘hair’

skǫr (noun f.; °skarar; skarir): hair, planking

[5] Skǫr: skotit Bb

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

bað ‘ordered’

biðja (verb; °biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)): ask for, order, pray

[5] bað: bauð papp18ˣ, J2ˣ, bar 68, lét 61, Bb, Flat, Tóm

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

hann ‘He’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

hjǫrvi ‘the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

her ‘the people’s’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herland (noun n.)

[6] her‑: hér 325VII

notes

[6] herland ‘the people’s land’: This follows the suggestion of Kock (NN §1871) that this is a cpd equivalent to fólkland ‘the people’s land’. This is plausible, particularly in view of the fact that herr can mean ‘population, inhabitants of a country’ (LP: herr 2); and cf. Ótt Hfl 7/3, 4 varða þjóðlǫnd ‘defend the nation’s lands’. (b) ÍF 27, followed by Jón Skaptason (1983) and Hkr 1991, understands it as land, sem verður fyrir hernaði ‘land that is subject to raids’. However, there are no close parallels for such a construction among the large number of nominal compounds in her-. (c) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) treats this as two unconnected words, taking land as the object of verja and her (dat.) as the hostile army against which the land must be defended.

Close

land ‘land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < herland (noun n.)

[6] ‑land: lǫndum 321ˣ, ‑lǫnd 73aˣ

notes

[6] herland ‘the people’s land’: This follows the suggestion of Kock (NN §1871) that this is a cpd equivalent to fólkland ‘the people’s land’. This is plausible, particularly in view of the fact that herr can mean ‘population, inhabitants of a country’ (LP: herr 2); and cf. Ótt Hfl 7/3, 4 varða þjóðlǫnd ‘defend the nation’s lands’. (b) ÍF 27, followed by Jón Skaptason (1983) and Hkr 1991, understands it as land, sem verður fyrir hernaði ‘land that is subject to raids’. However, there are no close parallels for such a construction among the large number of nominal compounds in her-. (c) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) treats this as two unconnected words, taking land as the object of verja and her (dat.) as the hostile army against which the land must be defended.

Close

skal ‘how to’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

notes

[6] svá skal verja ‘that is how to defend’: Lit. ‘so must (one) defend’.

Close

svá ‘that is’

svá (adv.): so, thus

[6] svá: om. 321ˣ

notes

[6] svá skal verja ‘that is how to defend’: Lit. ‘so must (one) defend’.

Close

verja ‘defend’

3. verja (verb): defend

notes

[6] svá skal verja ‘that is how to defend’: Lit. ‘so must (one) defend’.

Close

ráns ‘for their robbery’

rán (noun n.; °-s; -): plunder, plundering

[7] ráns: rá ráns papp18ˣ, rán Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, 325XI 2 g, raun 68, 61, rann Tóm

notes

[7, 8] biðu refsing ráns ‘suffered punishment for their robbery’: is the sole ms. to have the reading ráns (gen. sg., though cf. rá ráns in papp18ˣ) but this must be correct as the majority reading rán (nom./acc. sg.) cannot be accounted for in the syntax. The verb refsa ‘punish’ normally takes an acc. object referring to the offence (e.g. SnSt Ht 66/7-8II), but refsing ráns is similar to the use of a gen. object with verbs like gjalda ‘(re)pay’, hefna ‘avenge’ (NS §134).

Close

biðu ‘suffered’

2. biða (verb; °-að-): experience, suffer

[7] biðu: biðr Bb

notes

[7, 8] biðu refsing ráns ‘suffered punishment for their robbery’: is the sole ms. to have the reading ráns (gen. sg., though cf. rá ráns in papp18ˣ) but this must be correct as the majority reading rán (nom./acc. sg.) cannot be accounted for in the syntax. The verb refsa ‘punish’ normally takes an acc. object referring to the offence (e.g. SnSt Ht 66/7-8II), but refsing ráns is similar to the use of a gen. object with verbs like gjalda ‘(re)pay’, hefna ‘avenge’ (NS §134).

Close

rekkar ‘the warriors’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

[7] rekkar: réttrar 68, rekka 61, Bb, Tóm, rekka corrected from rekkar Flat

Close

sýna ‘visible’

sýnn (adj.): visible

[7] sýna: so Holm4, 325VII, sína Kˣ, papp18ˣ, sona Holm2, 325XI 2 g, reiðir J2ˣ, þínir 321ˣ, 73aˣ, sýnar 68, trjónur 61, Flat, Tóm, sóna 325V, ‘trino’ Bb

notes

[7] sýna ‘visible’: Although found only in Holm4 and 325VII, this reading is clearly the most plausible. It is partially supported by some of the other (curiously diverse) ms. readings and is adopted by previous eds.

Close

refsing ‘punishment’

refsing (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): [punishment]

notes

[7, 8] biðu refsing ráns ‘suffered punishment for their robbery’: is the sole ms. to have the reading ráns (gen. sg., though cf. rá ráns in papp18ˣ) but this must be correct as the majority reading rán (nom./acc. sg.) cannot be accounted for in the syntax. The verb refsa ‘punish’ normally takes an acc. object referring to the offence (e.g. SnSt Ht 66/7-8II), but refsing ráns is similar to the use of a gen. object with verbs like gjalda ‘(re)pay’, hefna ‘avenge’ (NS §134).

Close

firum ‘men’s’

firar (noun m.): men

[8] firum: konungr 61, Bb, Flat, Tóm

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

efsa ‘to be cut’

efsa (verb): [to be cut]

[8] efsa: ofsa Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, ‘hnefsa’ 61, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, efla 325V

notes

[5, 8] hann bað efsa skǫr firum með hjǫrvi ‘he ordered men’s hair to be cut with the sword’: The image of hair-cutting noted by Kock (NN §658) here and in st. 6 (cf. also st. 14) may be a form of humiliating punishment (see Ebel 1999, 240). It is also doubtless a euphemism for beheading. Efsa is recorded only here. Kock compares OE efesian ‘clip, shear, cut’, and the fact that Sigvatr spent time in England and is known for his lexical resourcefulness makes OE influence possible.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

King Óláfr is said to have put an end to the practice whereby the sons of Norwegian aristocrats and powerful farmers went raiding, both within Norway and abroad. He brings security to the land and curtails their robbery by punishing them with death or maiming; neither pleas nor bribes deflect him.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.