skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Sigv ErfÓl 14I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 681.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonErfidrápa Óláfs helga
131415

Rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

rekka ‘of warriors’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

blóði ‘the blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

rǫnd ‘shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

með ‘along with’

með (prep.): with

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’. — [2] með hǫndum gumna ‘along with the hands of men’: Here (with Kock, NN §§661, 2988C, and ÍF 27), með is taken in the sense ‘together with’. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B suggested a sg. sense for the pl. gumna ‘of men’, hence ‘(sword) in the man’s hands’.

Close

með ‘along with’

með (prep.): with

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’. — [2] með hǫndum gumna ‘along with the hands of men’: Here (with Kock, NN §§661, 2988C, and ÍF 27), með is taken in the sense ‘together with’. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B suggested a sg. sense for the pl. gumna ‘of men’, hence ‘(sword) in the man’s hands’.

Close

gumna ‘of men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’. — [2] með hǫndum gumna ‘along with the hands of men’: Here (with Kock, NN §§661, 2988C, and ÍF 27), með is taken in the sense ‘together with’. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B suggested a sg. sense for the pl. gumna ‘of men’, hence ‘(sword) in the man’s hands’.

Close

gumna ‘of men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’. — [2] með hǫndum gumna ‘along with the hands of men’: Here (with Kock, NN §§661, 2988C, and ÍF 27), með is taken in the sense ‘together with’. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B suggested a sg. sense for the pl. gumna ‘of men’, hence ‘(sword) in the man’s hands’.

Close

hǫndum ‘the hands’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’. — [2] með hǫndum gumna ‘along with the hands of men’: Here (with Kock, NN §§661, 2988C, and ÍF 27), með is taken in the sense ‘together with’. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B suggested a sg. sense for the pl. gumna ‘of men’, hence ‘(sword) in the man’s hands’.

Close

hǫndum ‘the hands’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’. — [2] með hǫndum gumna ‘along with the hands of men’: Here (with Kock, NN §§661, 2988C, and ÍF 27), með is taken in the sense ‘together with’. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B suggested a sg. sense for the pl. gumna ‘of men’, hence ‘(sword) in the man’s hands’.

Close

dreyrugt ‘Gory’

dreyrugr (adj.; °dreyrgan/dreyrugan; superl. dreyrgastr): bloody

[3] dreyrugt: so 73aˣ, 325VII, dreyrug Kˣ, Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Holm4, 61, 325V, Flat, Tóm

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

sverð ‘sword’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

notes

[1-3]: (a) Dreyrugt sverð ‘gory sword’, although the reading of only two mss, is adopted here (as in Skj B, Skald and Jón Skaptason 1983) to provide a subject for the sg. verb rauð. (b) The majority reading dreyrug sverð is retained in ÍF 27 (followed by Hkr 1991), and taken as acc. pl., while rauð is assumed to be impersonal. This leads to the syntactically awkward Rauð rǫnd með hǫndum gumna, dreyrug sverð ‘One reddened the shield, along with the hands of men, (and) gory swords’.

Close

þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

[3] þars (‘þar er’): þá er 73aˣ, 325V, fyrir 325VII

Close

dýran ‘the glorious’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

[3] dýran: dyggvan 73aˣ, 325V, dýrum 61

Close

drótt ‘the troop’

1. drótt (noun f.): troop

Close

sótti ‘attacked’

sœkja (verb): seek, attack

[4] sótti: sóttu 325V

Close

Auk ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] Auk: ok Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Holm4, 325V, ‘ott’ 61, 325VII, Tóm

notes

[5] auk at ísarnleiki ‘and ... in the iron-play [BATTLE]’: The same phrase is found (only) in Þjóð Haustl 14/5, where the fight is a mythic one between the god Þórr and the giant Hrungnir. Given the further resemblance to Haustl (see Note to ll. 7, 8 below), Sigvatr’s stanza may consciously or unconsciously recall Haustl.

Close

at ‘in’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[5] auk at ísarnleiki ‘and ... in the iron-play [BATTLE]’: The same phrase is found (only) in Þjóð Haustl 14/5, where the fight is a mythic one between the god Þórr and the giant Hrungnir. Given the further resemblance to Haustl (see Note to ll. 7, 8 below), Sigvatr’s stanza may consciously or unconsciously recall Haustl.

Close

ísarn ‘the iron’

ísarn (noun n.; °; -): iron < ísarnleikr (noun m.)

[5] ísarn‑: so Holm2, jarna‑ Kˣ, J2ˣ, Holm4, 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, í sár 325V

kennings

ísarnleiki.
‘the iron-play. ’
   = BATTLE

the iron-play. → BATTLE

notes

[5] auk at ísarnleiki ‘and ... in the iron-play [BATTLE]’: The same phrase is found (only) in Þjóð Haustl 14/5, where the fight is a mythic one between the god Þórr and the giant Hrungnir. Given the further resemblance to Haustl (see Note to ll. 7, 8 below), Sigvatr’s stanza may consciously or unconsciously recall Haustl.

Close

leiki ‘play’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play < ísarnleikr (noun m.)

kennings

ísarnleiki.
‘the iron-play. ’
   = BATTLE

the iron-play. → BATTLE

notes

[5] auk at ísarnleiki ‘and ... in the iron-play [BATTLE]’: The same phrase is found (only) in Þjóð Haustl 14/5, where the fight is a mythic one between the god Þórr and the giant Hrungnir. Given the further resemblance to Haustl (see Note to ll. 7, 8 below), Sigvatr’s stanza may consciously or unconsciously recall Haustl.

Close

lét ‘caused’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[6] lét: sókn Flat

Close

finnask ‘to be found’

2. finna (verb): find, meet

[6] finnask: stinna Flat

Close

rœkinn ‘the capable’

rœkinn (adj.): capable, cultivating

[7] rœkinn: rekinn var 61, Flat, Tóm

notes

[7] rœkinn ‘capable’: Apart from this instance, the adj. (apparently the p. p. of an unrecorded strong verb) is attested only in various compounds (LP: rœkinn) and the meaning is not entirely clear, though it may be related to the weak verb rœkja ‘to take care’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) takes rœkinn with at ísarnleiki ‘in iron-play [BATTLE]’, hence ‘capable in battle’, but the prepositional phrase is more naturally taken with lét finnask ‘caused to be found’ (cf. NN §620).

Close

gramr ‘prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[7] gramr: ‘grarr’ Flat, grár Tóm

Close

reikar ‘of the hair-parting’

1. reik (noun f.; °-ar; -r): hair-parting

kennings

túnum reikar
‘the homefields of the hair-parting ’
   = HEAD

the homefields of the hair-parting → HEAD

notes

[7, 8] túnum reikar ‘the homefields of the parting [HEAD]’: The pl. túnum might suggest ‘hair’ as the referent of this kenning, but the context and skaldic parallels (Meissner 127) rather suggest ‘head’. Compare the similar hneigihlíðum hárs ‘inclined slopes of the hair [HEAD]’ in Þjóð Haustl 20/1-2III: in both cases the head is assaulted by a weapon (a whetstone in Haustl) described as rauðr ‘red’. Sigvatr’s kenning continues the preoccupation with hair in recounting Óláfr’s punitive actions against his enemies; cf. st. 4/5, 8, st. 6/2, 3, 4 and Notes.

Close

brúnan ‘brown’

2. brúnn (adj.): brown, dark < rauðbrúnn (adj.)

[8] ‑brúnan: brúnum Tóm

Close

túnum ‘the homefields’

tún (noun n.; °-s; -): homefield, enclosure

[8] túnum: túni 321ˣ

kennings

túnum reikar
‘the homefields of the hair-parting ’
   = HEAD

the homefields of the hair-parting → HEAD

notes

[7, 8] túnum reikar ‘the homefields of the parting [HEAD]’: The pl. túnum might suggest ‘hair’ as the referent of this kenning, but the context and skaldic parallels (Meissner 127) rather suggest ‘head’. Compare the similar hneigihlíðum hárs ‘inclined slopes of the hair [HEAD]’ in Þjóð Haustl 20/1-2III: in both cases the head is assaulted by a weapon (a whetstone in Haustl) described as rauðr ‘red’. Sigvatr’s kenning continues the preoccupation with hair in recounting Óláfr’s punitive actions against his enemies; cf. st. 4/5, 8, st. 6/2, 3, 4 and Notes.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The fighting gets fiercer and the king presses forward in the hand-to-hand fighting.

[5-8]: It is possible to construe the helmingr in two ways, depending on the interpretation of rauð (l. 8). (a) Rauð could form part of a cpd adj. rauðbrúnan (m. acc. sg.) ‘red-brown’ (so Skj B, Skald and this edn), cf. rauðljóss, lit. ‘red-light’, in Hallv Knútdr 4/1III (-brúnn is unlikely to mean ‘sharp’; see Note to Arn Magndr 2/8II). In this case ll. 5-8 constitute a single clause. (b) Rauð could be the pret. verb ‘reddened’, with gramr ‘prince’ as its understood subject (so ÍF 27). However, this interpretation presents difficulties in ll. 6-7, requiring lét ‘caused’ to take a dat. object (Innþrœndum ‘Innþrœndir’) and leaving the role of finnask ‘be found’ unclear.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.