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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv ErfÓl 13I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 13’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 679.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonErfidrápa Óláfs helga
121314

Geir ‘the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear

[1] Geir: so 321ˣ, geirs all others

notes

[1, 4] geirhvassar sjónir ‘the spear-sharp eyes’: The majority reading geirs, lit. ‘of the spear’, is problematic, being not essential to the sense or syntax of the stanza. (a) The 321ˣ reading geir is adopted here, and the assumption made that it (or possibly geirs) is the first element of a cpd adj. geir(s)hvass ‘spear-sharp’, with tmesis. The cpd is thus parallel with ormfrôn ‘snake-bright’ in l. 8, also describing Óláfr’s eyes; cf. also compounds such as egghvass ‘blade-sharp’, eitrhvass ‘poison-sharp’. (b) The majority form geirs could be taken, as in ÍF 27, as a descriptive gen. (cf. NS §127, though the examples do not extend to the use of gen. as a compressed simile as would be assumed here). (c) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B), followed by Kock (Skald), emends gunn- ‘battle’ (l. 2) to gný- ‘tumult’ to produce gnýreifum geirs ‘glad in the tumult of the spear [BATTLE]’.

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hykk ‘I think’

2. hyggja (verb): think, consider

[1] hykk: ‘hugg’ 321ˣ, om. 325V

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vôru ‘it was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] vôru: ríki 61, væri Flat

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reifum ‘glad’

2. reifr (adj.): happy < gunnreifr (adj.): battle-glad

[2] ‑reifum: ‑reipum 321ˣ

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Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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log ‘of the flame’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < loghreytandi (noun m.)

[3] log‑: lof‑ Holm2, 321ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

kennings

lóns loghreytǫndum
‘flame-distributors of the lagoon’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the flame of the lagoon → GOLD
for the distributors of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
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log ‘of the flame’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < loghreytandi (noun m.)

[3] log‑: lof‑ Holm2, 321ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

kennings

lóns loghreytǫndum
‘flame-distributors of the lagoon’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the flame of the lagoon → GOLD
for the distributors of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
Close

hreytǫndum ‘for the distributors’

hreytandi (noun m.): distributor < loghreytandi (noun m.)

[3] ‑hreytǫndum: ‘‑røtondum’ Holm2, ‑hreytendum J2ˣ, ‘‑reitundum’ Holm4, ‘‑rækindvm’ 61, ‑rennundum 325V, ‘‑hrækundum’ with ‘rekiondom’ in the margin 325VII, ‘‑rækendum’ Flat, Tóm

kennings

lóns loghreytǫndum
‘flame-distributors of the lagoon’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the flame of the lagoon → GOLD
for the distributors of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
Close

lóns ‘of the lagoon’

2. lón (noun n.; °-s; -): lagoon

[4] lóns: léons 321ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

kennings

lóns loghreytǫndum
‘flame-distributors of the lagoon’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the flame of the lagoon → GOLD
for the distributors of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
Close

lóns ‘of the lagoon’

2. lón (noun n.; °-s; -): lagoon

[4] lóns: léons 321ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

kennings

lóns loghreytǫndum
‘flame-distributors of the lagoon’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the flame of the lagoon → GOLD
for the distributors of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
Close

í ‘into’

í (prep.): in, into

[4] í: með with ‘i’ written above 325VII

Close

hvassar ‘sharp’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp

notes

[1, 4] geirhvassar sjónir ‘the spear-sharp eyes’: The majority reading geirs, lit. ‘of the spear’, is problematic, being not essential to the sense or syntax of the stanza. (a) The 321ˣ reading geir is adopted here, and the assumption made that it (or possibly geirs) is the first element of a cpd adj. geir(s)hvass ‘spear-sharp’, with tmesis. The cpd is thus parallel with ormfrôn ‘snake-bright’ in l. 8, also describing Óláfr’s eyes; cf. also compounds such as egghvass ‘blade-sharp’, eitrhvass ‘poison-sharp’. (b) The majority form geirs could be taken, as in ÍF 27, as a descriptive gen. (cf. NS §127, though the examples do not extend to the use of gen. as a compressed simile as would be assumed here). (c) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B), followed by Kock (Skald), emends gunn- ‘battle’ (l. 2) to gný- ‘tumult’ to produce gnýreifum geirs ‘glad in the tumult of the spear [BATTLE]’.

Close

sjónir ‘eyes’

sjón (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): eyes, sight

notes

[1, 4] geirhvassar sjónir ‘the spear-sharp eyes’: The majority reading geirs, lit. ‘of the spear’, is problematic, being not essential to the sense or syntax of the stanza. (a) The 321ˣ reading geir is adopted here, and the assumption made that it (or possibly geirs) is the first element of a cpd adj. geir(s)hvass ‘spear-sharp’, with tmesis. The cpd is thus parallel with ormfrôn ‘snake-bright’ in l. 8, also describing Óláfr’s eyes; cf. also compounds such as egghvass ‘blade-sharp’, eitrhvass ‘poison-sharp’. (b) The majority form geirs could be taken, as in ÍF 27, as a descriptive gen. (cf. NS §127, though the examples do not extend to the use of gen. as a compressed simile as would be assumed here). (c) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B), followed by Kock (Skald), emends gunn- ‘battle’ (l. 2) to gný- ‘tumult’ to produce gnýreifum geirs ‘glad in the tumult of the spear [BATTLE]’.

Close

Þorðut ‘did not dare’

þora (verb): dare

[5] Þorðut: þorðu ei Flat

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þrœnzkir ‘ from Trøndelag’

þrœnzkr (adj.): from Trøndelag

[5] þrœnzkir: Þrœndr 325V, Þrœndir Tóm

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fyrðar ‘The men’

2. fyrðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): man

[5] fyrðar: virðar Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Holm4, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

notes

[5] fyrðar ‘the men’: The variant reading virðar is synonymous, and equally satisfactory.

Close

hersa ‘of hersar

hersir (noun m.; °-is; -ar): cheiftan

kennings

dróttinn hersa
‘the lord of hersar
   = KING = Óláfr

the lord of hersar → KING = Óláfr

notes

[6] hersa ‘of hersar’: Hersir (nom. sg.) refers to a Norwegian district chieftain, i.e. a nobleman of lesser rank than a jarl. The term is also used in sts 20/2, 28/3.

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dróttinn ‘the lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

dróttinn hersa
‘the lord of hersar
   = KING = Óláfr

the lord of hersar → KING = Óláfr
Close

ógur ‘terri’

[7] ógur‑: œgi‑ Holm2, J2ˣ, Holm4, 325V

Close

frôn ‘bright’

2. fránn (adj.): bright, shining < ormfránn (adj.)

[8] ‑frôn: ‘prans’ 321ˣ, frôns 61, 325V

Close

séa ‘to look’

2. sjá (verb): see

[8] séa hônum: hônum séa Tóm

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Óláfr breaks forward from his own shield-wall and the farmers are frightened at the sight of his face.

On the literary topos of the terrifying glance of the ruler, see Marold (1998a). As noted by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV), Snorri Sturluson may well have used this stanza when describing Óláfr as having exceptional eyes: beautiful and so piercing as to be terrifying to look at when he was angry (ÍF 27, 4).

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