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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Austv 11I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Austrfararvísur 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 599.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonAustrfararvísur
101112

rinnir ‘’

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rinnr ‘runs’

2. renna (verb): run (strong)

[1] rinnr (‘renn’): rinnir 78aˣ

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skioro ‘’

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skætu ‘’

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skœru ‘’

1. skœra (noun f.; °; -ur): fight, conflict

[1] ‑skœru: ‘skioro’ R686ˣ, ‑skœrur 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 61, Holm4, ‘skætu’ Tóm

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svangr ‘’

2. svangr (adj.): hungry < allsvangr (adj.)

[2] ‑svangr: ‑strangr 73aˣ

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vǫll ‘the ground’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

[3] vǫll kná: ‘uollka’ corrected from ‘uollkar’ R686ˣ

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kná ‘can’

knega (verb): to know, understand, be able to

[3] vǫll kná: ‘uollka’ corrected from ‘uollkar’ R686ˣ

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ho᷎fr ‘’

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hófr ‘the hoof’

hófr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): hoof

[3] hófr: hóf 325VI, 75a, 78aˣ, ‘ho᷎fr’ 73aˣ

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til ‘on the way to’

til (prep.): to

notes

[3] til hallar ‘to the hall’: The phrase is here taken with slíta vǫll ‘tear the ground’ in ll. 3-4, as by Kock (NN §1861, followed by ÍF 27; Hkr 1991), which produces simpler word order. It could alternatively be connected with gǫtur ‘ways’ in l. 2, as in Skj B

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hallar ‘the hall’

1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall

notes

[3] til hallar ‘to the hall’: The phrase is here taken with slíta vǫll ‘tear the ground’ in ll. 3-4, as by Kock (NN §1861, followed by ÍF 27; Hkr 1991), which produces simpler word order. It could alternatively be connected with gǫtur ‘ways’ in l. 2, as in Skj B

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hǫfum ‘we have’

hafa (verb): have

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lítin ‘’

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lítinn ‘little’

lítill (adj.; °lítinn): little

[4] lítinn: so 325V, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 75c, 325VII, Flat, Kˣ, lítin Holm2, 972ˣ, Tóm, Bb, ‘litt[…]’ R686ˣ

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Nús ‘Now’

nú (adv.): now

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þats ‘it is that’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] þats (‘þat er’): þat 325VI, 78aˣ, Tóm

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blakr ‘’

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blakkr ‘[my] dark mount’

1. blakkr (noun m.): horse

[5] blakkr: ‘blakr’ R686ˣ

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of ‘over’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[5] of: enn Tóm

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bælki ‘’

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bekki ‘streams’

2. bekkr (noun m.; °-jar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): spring

[5] bekki: bleki R686ˣ, ‘bælki’ Tóm

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berr ‘carries’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[6] berr: ‘berer’ R686ˣ, bar 78aˣ

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Dǫnum ‘from the Danes’

danr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): Dane

notes

[6] ferri Dǫnum ‘farther from Danes’: There is no universally agreed explanation for this phrase. Beckman (1923, 331, but cf. Beckman 1934, 212-13) explains it as meaning ‘along the way from the Danes’, i.e. after passing Stora Hov, Sigvatr took the road from Lödöse and Halland, which was then Danish territory. Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 549-50) supposes that Sigvatr composed this stanza on the return journey from Västergötland, which, he argues, was then under Danish control. Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 187-8; similarly Turville-Petre, 1976, 80) suggests that the import of the remark is that the political situation of the day was such that it would have been dangerous for Sigvatr to travel anywhere near Danish territory. Schreiner (1927-9c, 42-3) imagines that an earlier phase of the journey took Sigvatr sailing through Øresund, with Danish territory on both sides. The eds of Hkr 1991 suggest that Sigvatr may have had in mind that the Swedes and their king would turn out to be more effective opponents to King Óláfr than the Danes had been. Frank (1978, 74) interprets the phrase to mean ‘inland’, i.e. ‘away from the seaboard which was largely Danish territory’. See also Toll (1925, 157-8).

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ferri ‘far’

ferri (adv.): far, further

[6] ferri: fœrri 75c

notes

[6] ferri Dǫnum ‘farther from Danes’: There is no universally agreed explanation for this phrase. Beckman (1923, 331, but cf. Beckman 1934, 212-13) explains it as meaning ‘along the way from the Danes’, i.e. after passing Stora Hov, Sigvatr took the road from Lödöse and Halland, which was then Danish territory. Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 549-50) supposes that Sigvatr composed this stanza on the return journey from Västergötland, which, he argues, was then under Danish control. Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 187-8; similarly Turville-Petre, 1976, 80) suggests that the import of the remark is that the political situation of the day was such that it would have been dangerous for Sigvatr to travel anywhere near Danish territory. Schreiner (1927-9c, 42-3) imagines that an earlier phase of the journey took Sigvatr sailing through Øresund, with Danish territory on both sides. The eds of Hkr 1991 suggest that Sigvatr may have had in mind that the Swedes and their king would turn out to be more effective opponents to King Óláfr than the Danes had been. Frank (1978, 74) interprets the phrase to mean ‘inland’, i.e. ‘away from the seaboard which was largely Danish territory’. See also Toll (1925, 157-8).

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fákr ‘charger’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse

[7] fákr: corrected from ‘fakar’ R686ˣ

notes

[7, 8] fákr drengs laust fœti í díki ‘the good fellow’s [my] charger struck with its foot [stumbled] in a ditch’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supposes that díki refers to a brook (bækken). To the horse’s stumbling, Frank (1978, 73) cites parallels in the sagas that bear connotations of bad luck and fate. The use of drengr ‘good fellow, warrior’ is probably ironic or mock-heroic here; cf. Note to st. 5/2.

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laust ‘struck’

2. ljósta (verb): strike

[7] laust: lystr Holm4

notes

[7, 8] fákr drengs laust fœti í díki ‘the good fellow’s [my] charger struck with its foot [stumbled] in a ditch’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supposes that díki refers to a brook (bækken). To the horse’s stumbling, Frank (1978, 73) cites parallels in the sagas that bear connotations of bad luck and fate. The use of drengr ‘good fellow, warrior’ is probably ironic or mock-heroic here; cf. Note to st. 5/2.

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drengs ‘the good fellow’s [my]’

drengr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja): man, warrior

notes

[7, 8] fákr drengs laust fœti í díki ‘the good fellow’s [my] charger struck with its foot [stumbled] in a ditch’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supposes that díki refers to a brook (bækken). To the horse’s stumbling, Frank (1978, 73) cites parallels in the sagas that bear connotations of bad luck and fate. The use of drengr ‘good fellow, warrior’ is probably ironic or mock-heroic here; cf. Note to st. 5/2.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[7, 8] fákr drengs laust fœti í díki ‘the good fellow’s [my] charger struck with its foot [stumbled] in a ditch’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supposes that díki refers to a brook (bækken). To the horse’s stumbling, Frank (1978, 73) cites parallels in the sagas that bear connotations of bad luck and fate. The use of drengr ‘good fellow, warrior’ is probably ironic or mock-heroic here; cf. Note to st. 5/2.

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díki ‘a ditch’

díki (noun n.; °; -): ditch

notes

[7, 8] fákr drengs laust fœti í díki ‘the good fellow’s [my] charger struck with its foot [stumbled] in a ditch’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supposes that díki refers to a brook (bækken). To the horse’s stumbling, Frank (1978, 73) cites parallels in the sagas that bear connotations of bad luck and fate. The use of drengr ‘good fellow, warrior’ is probably ironic or mock-heroic here; cf. Note to st. 5/2.

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dœgr ‘night and day’

dœgr (noun n.; °-s; -): day and night; 24h period

notes

[8] dœgr mœtask nú ‘night and day meet now’: Edqvist (1943, 69) suggests this may mean not simply that it is now twilight but that now morning and evening twilight meet, with the implication that it is now midsummer (since he supposes the journey to have begun in the spring). Dœgr, here pl., more strictly refers to a period of either twelve or twenty-four hours.

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mœtask ‘meet’

mœta (verb): meet

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[8] dœgr mœtask nú ‘night and day meet now’: Edqvist (1943, 69) suggests this may mean not simply that it is now twilight but that now morning and evening twilight meet, with the implication that it is now midsummer (since he supposes the journey to have begun in the spring). Dœgr, here pl., more strictly refers to a period of either twelve or twenty-four hours.

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‘now’

nú (adv.): now

[8] nú: svá 325VI, 78aˣ, hér Holm4

notes

[8] dœgr mœtask nú ‘night and day meet now’: Edqvist (1943, 69) suggests this may mean not simply that it is now twilight but that now morning and evening twilight meet, with the implication that it is now midsummer (since he supposes the journey to have begun in the spring). Dœgr, here pl., more strictly refers to a period of either twelve or twenty-four hours.

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fœti ‘with its foot’

1. fótr (noun m.): foot, leg

notes

[7, 8] fákr drengs laust fœti í díki ‘the good fellow’s [my] charger struck with its foot [stumbled] in a ditch’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) supposes that díki refers to a brook (bækken). To the horse’s stumbling, Frank (1978, 73) cites parallels in the sagas that bear connotations of bad luck and fate. The use of drengr ‘good fellow, warrior’ is probably ironic or mock-heroic here; cf. Note to st. 5/2.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As for sts 9-10, though it is now evening.

[3] vǫll : hallar: Frank (1978, 74) points out the rhyme of ǫ with a in this odd line, where skothending is expected, though ǫ : a and ô : á occur elsewhere in the poem as aðalhendingar (see the Note to st. 3/8). However, aðalhending in place of skothending is by no means rare in Sigvatr’s works: Höskuldur Þráinsson (1970, 25-7) identifies fifty-four examples, exclusive of fourteen examples of a : ǫ .

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