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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigm Lv 1II

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2009, ‘Sigmundr ǫngull, Lausavísur 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 626-7.

Sigmundr ǫngullLausavísur
12

várar ‘it is spring’

3. vár (noun n.): spring

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Skǫgul ‘to the Skǫgul’

Skǫgul (noun f.): Skǫgul

kennings

Skǫgul borða,
‘to the Skǫgul of the trimming, ’
   = WOMAN

to the Skǫgul of the trimming, → WOMAN
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borða ‘of the trimming’

borði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): embroidery

kennings

Skǫgul borða,
‘to the Skǫgul of the trimming, ’
   = WOMAN

to the Skǫgul of the trimming, → WOMAN
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fjall ‘of the mountain’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain < fjallrif (noun n.)

kennings

fægiþellu fjallrifs,
‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib, ’
   = WOMAN

the mountain rib, → STONE
the polishing fir-tree of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[3] fægiþellu fjallrifs ‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib [STONE > WOMAN]’: Steinn and kennings for ‘stone’ in woman-kennings refer to precious stones (Meissner 414-15). This is an unusual kenning in that, while women are frequently associated with fir-trees and with precious stones, the image of them polishing the latter is less common, though see fægi-Freyja hodda ‘the polishing-Freyja of treasure’ in KormǪ Lv 7/7V.

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fjall ‘of the mountain’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain < fjallrif (noun n.)

kennings

fægiþellu fjallrifs,
‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib, ’
   = WOMAN

the mountain rib, → STONE
the polishing fir-tree of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[3] fægiþellu fjallrifs ‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib [STONE > WOMAN]’: Steinn and kennings for ‘stone’ in woman-kennings refer to precious stones (Meissner 414-15). This is an unusual kenning in that, while women are frequently associated with fir-trees and with precious stones, the image of them polishing the latter is less common, though see fægi-Freyja hodda ‘the polishing-Freyja of treasure’ in KormǪ Lv 7/7V.

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rifs ‘rib’

1. rif (noun n.; °-s; -, gen. -ja): rib, reason < fjallrif (noun n.)

kennings

fægiþellu fjallrifs,
‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib, ’
   = WOMAN

the mountain rib, → STONE
the polishing fir-tree of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[3] fægiþellu fjallrifs ‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib [STONE > WOMAN]’: Steinn and kennings for ‘stone’ in woman-kennings refer to precious stones (Meissner 414-15). This is an unusual kenning in that, while women are frequently associated with fir-trees and with precious stones, the image of them polishing the latter is less common, though see fægi-Freyja hodda ‘the polishing-Freyja of treasure’ in KormǪ Lv 7/7V.

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rifs ‘rib’

1. rif (noun n.; °-s; -, gen. -ja): rib, reason < fjallrif (noun n.)

kennings

fægiþellu fjallrifs,
‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib, ’
   = WOMAN

the mountain rib, → STONE
the polishing fir-tree of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[3] fægiþellu fjallrifs ‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib [STONE > WOMAN]’: Steinn and kennings for ‘stone’ in woman-kennings refer to precious stones (Meissner 414-15). This is an unusual kenning in that, while women are frequently associated with fir-trees and with precious stones, the image of them polishing the latter is less common, though see fægi-Freyja hodda ‘the polishing-Freyja of treasure’ in KormǪ Lv 7/7V.

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fægi ‘the polishing’

fægir (noun m.): cultivator, polisher, performer < fægiþella (noun f.)

kennings

fægiþellu fjallrifs,
‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib, ’
   = WOMAN

the mountain rib, → STONE
the polishing fir-tree of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[3] fægiþellu fjallrifs ‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib [STONE > WOMAN]’: Steinn and kennings for ‘stone’ in woman-kennings refer to precious stones (Meissner 414-15). This is an unusual kenning in that, while women are frequently associated with fir-trees and with precious stones, the image of them polishing the latter is less common, though see fægi-Freyja hodda ‘the polishing-Freyja of treasure’ in KormǪ Lv 7/7V.

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þellu ‘fir-tree’

þella (noun f.): fir, young pine < fægiþella (noun f.)

kennings

fægiþellu fjallrifs,
‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib, ’
   = WOMAN

the mountain rib, → STONE
the polishing fir-tree of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[3] fægiþellu fjallrifs ‘the polishing fir-tree of the mountain rib [STONE > WOMAN]’: Steinn and kennings for ‘stone’ in woman-kennings refer to precious stones (Meissner 414-15). This is an unusual kenning in that, while women are frequently associated with fir-trees and with precious stones, the image of them polishing the latter is less common, though see fægi-Freyja hodda ‘the polishing-Freyja of treasure’ in KormǪ Lv 7/7V.

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fley ‘the ship’

2. fley (noun n.; °-s): ship < fleyvangr (noun m.)

kennings

fleyvangs
‘the ship-plain ’
   = SEA

the ship-plain → SEA
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vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < fleyvangr (noun m.)

kennings

fleyvangs
‘the ship-plain ’
   = SEA

the ship-plain → SEA
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Orkneyja ‘the Orkneys’

Orkneyjar (noun f.): [Orkneys]

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þar ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

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sungu ‘sang’

syngja (verb): sing

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kastals ‘of the castle’

kastal (noun n.): [castle]

[6] kastals: kastala Flat

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ár ‘early’

4. ár (adv.): of yore, previously, early

[7] ár: eir Flat

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þótt ‘even if’

þótt (conj.): although

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ítr ‘splendid’

ítr (adj.): glorious

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Chs 86-7 of Orkn describe at length the crusaders’ siege of a castle in Galicia, culminating in an attack on the tenth day of Christmas. Sigmundr is said to have been one of the most eager attackers, always going ahead of Rǫgnvaldr, despite his youth (ÍF 34, 216). For other sts recited on this occasion, see Rv Lv 17-19. Sigmundr’s st. is cited after the last of these, during a lull in the fighting. Afterwards, Sigmundr is said to have entered the defeated castle along with Rǫgnvaldr.

The attack is said to have happened on 3 January 1153 (Taylor 1938, 310). — [1]: The Flat variant (þér 2nd pers. pl. nom. ‘you’) would leave this l. without alliteration. On the alliterative pattern, see NN §2088. — [1-4]: Kock (NN §492) points out that the emendations proposed by Konráð Gíslason (Nj 1875-8, 608-9) and accepted by Finnur Jónsson in Skj B are unnecessary and that the st. is essentially unproblematic. — [2]: Kock (NN § 492) points to the similarity between this l. and KormǪ Lv 56/6V. — [6]: The Flat reading would give too many syllables in this l.

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