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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Krm 6VIII

Rory McTurk (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Poems, Krákumál 6’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 728.

Anonymous PoemsKrákumál
567

Hjuggu ‘hewed’

hǫggva (verb): to strike, put to death, cut, hew

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘híugu ver m h̄.’ 1824b, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi 6ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, abbrev. as ‘H. v: med h:’ R702ˣ

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vér ‘We’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘híugu ver m h̄.’ 1824b, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi 6ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, abbrev. as ‘H. v: med h:’ R702ˣ

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘híugu ver m h̄.’ 1824b, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi 6ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, abbrev. as ‘H. v: med h:’ R702ˣ

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hjörvi ‘the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘híugu ver m h̄.’ 1824b, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi 6ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, abbrev. as ‘H. v: med h:’ R702ˣ

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kastaði ‘cast’

1. kasta (verb): throw

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‘corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hrægagarr (noun m.)

[3] gagarr: ‘hrę gagar’ ‘hraegagare W.’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘hraegagare’ LR, R693ˣ

kennings

ræstr rægagarr
‘the drawn corpse-hound ’
   = SWORD

the drawn corpse-hound → SWORD

notes

[3] rægagarr ‘the corpse-hound [SWORD]’: The noun gagarr ‘dog, hound’, here forming the base-word in a sword-kenning, is relatively rare. It occurs elsewhere only in the following instances: in Anon Darr 3/7V (Nj 55), where it also forms the base-word in a sword-kenning (hjálmgagarr ‘helmet-hound’), cf. Olsen (1933a, 98), and de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 70), in Anon Mhkv 4/3III, Tindr Hákdr 4/3I and Egill Lv 2/4V (Eg 5), and in the prose of Ldn (ÍF 1, 184), in this last instance as a nickname for Þorgrímr Ljótsson (Þorgrímr gagarr ‘the Dog’).

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gagarr ‘hound’

gagarr (noun m.): dog < hrægagarr (noun m.)

[3] gagarr: ‘hrę gagar’ ‘hraegagare W.’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘hraegagare’ LR, R693ˣ

kennings

ræstr rægagarr
‘the drawn corpse-hound ’
   = SWORD

the drawn corpse-hound → SWORD

notes

[3] rægagarr ‘the corpse-hound [SWORD]’: The noun gagarr ‘dog, hound’, here forming the base-word in a sword-kenning, is relatively rare. It occurs elsewhere only in the following instances: in Anon Darr 3/7V (Nj 55), where it also forms the base-word in a sword-kenning (hjálmgagarr ‘helmet-hound’), cf. Olsen (1933a, 98), and de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 70), in Anon Mhkv 4/3III, Tindr Hákdr 4/3I and Egill Lv 2/4V (Eg 5), and in the prose of Ldn (ÍF 1, 184), in this last instance as a nickname for Þorgrímr Ljótsson (Þorgrímr gagarr ‘the Dog’).

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ræstr ‘the drawn’

[4] ræstr (‘rręstr’): ‘Restur’ with ‘Reistur W.’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘rreistur’ R702ˣ, ‘reistur’ LR, ‘(R)eistur’(?) with ‘Reistur’ in margin R693ˣ

kennings

ræstr rægagarr
‘the drawn corpse-hound ’
   = SWORD

the drawn corpse-hound → SWORD
Close

gumna ‘of men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

[4] gumna: gunna R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[5] í Skarpaskerjum ‘in Skarpasker’: The reference is almost certainly to the islands referred to in ESk Run 8/3II in the phrase við Skǫrpusker ‘at Skǫrpusker’, and identified by A. B.Taylor (1965, 132-3; cf. ESk Run 8/3II and Note there; Townend 1998, 69-70) with the Farne Islands, a group of islands off the north-east coast of England (of Northumberland, cf. st. 14/4, below). If this p. n. in the form Skǫrpusker means ‘the sharp skerries’ (so SkP II, 557) or the ‘sharp rocks’ (Townend 1998, 70), this would imply that it is formed from the weak pl. form of the adj. skarpr ‘sharp’ used attributively with the noun sker n. pl. ‘skerries, rocks’, and that the dat. pl. form that would be expected here is Skǫrpuskerjum. That Skarpasker was an accepted nom. and acc. pl. variant form of Skǫrpusker, implying the dat. pl. form Skarpaskerjum, is perhaps suggested by its occurrence in one of the variant readings of ESk Run 8/3II as preserved in Mork (see SkP II, 557), and also in the prose introducing the relevant verse passage in Hkr (see ÍF 28, 329), where only the first half-stanza is preserved, though Skarpasker could be taken as n. acc. sg. rather than pl. in these instances.

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Skarpa ‘Skar’

Skarpa (noun f.): [Farne] < Skarpasker (noun n.)

[5] Skarpa‑: skarpa with ‘Skarfa Worm’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘skarffua’ R702ˣ, ‘skarfua’ LR

notes

[5] í Skarpaskerjum ‘in Skarpasker’: The reference is almost certainly to the islands referred to in ESk Run 8/3II in the phrase við Skǫrpusker ‘at Skǫrpusker’, and identified by A. B.Taylor (1965, 132-3; cf. ESk Run 8/3II and Note there; Townend 1998, 69-70) with the Farne Islands, a group of islands off the north-east coast of England (of Northumberland, cf. st. 14/4, below). If this p. n. in the form Skǫrpusker means ‘the sharp skerries’ (so SkP II, 557) or the ‘sharp rocks’ (Townend 1998, 70), this would imply that it is formed from the weak pl. form of the adj. skarpr ‘sharp’ used attributively with the noun sker n. pl. ‘skerries, rocks’, and that the dat. pl. form that would be expected here is Skǫrpuskerjum. That Skarpasker was an accepted nom. and acc. pl. variant form of Skǫrpusker, implying the dat. pl. form Skarpaskerjum, is perhaps suggested by its occurrence in one of the variant readings of ESk Run 8/3II as preserved in Mork (see SkP II, 557), and also in the prose introducing the relevant verse passage in Hkr (see ÍF 28, 329), where only the first half-stanza is preserved, though Skarpasker could be taken as n. acc. sg. rather than pl. in these instances.

Close

skerjum ‘pasker’

sker (noun n.; °-s; -, gen. -ja): skerry < Skarpasker (noun n.)

notes

[5] í Skarpaskerjum ‘in Skarpasker’: The reference is almost certainly to the islands referred to in ESk Run 8/3II in the phrase við Skǫrpusker ‘at Skǫrpusker’, and identified by A. B.Taylor (1965, 132-3; cf. ESk Run 8/3II and Note there; Townend 1998, 69-70) with the Farne Islands, a group of islands off the north-east coast of England (of Northumberland, cf. st. 14/4, below). If this p. n. in the form Skǫrpusker means ‘the sharp skerries’ (so SkP II, 557) or the ‘sharp rocks’ (Townend 1998, 70), this would imply that it is formed from the weak pl. form of the adj. skarpr ‘sharp’ used attributively with the noun sker n. pl. ‘skerries, rocks’, and that the dat. pl. form that would be expected here is Skǫrpuskerjum. That Skarpasker was an accepted nom. and acc. pl. variant form of Skǫrpusker, implying the dat. pl. form Skarpaskerjum, is perhaps suggested by its occurrence in one of the variant readings of ESk Run 8/3II as preserved in Mork (see SkP II, 557), and also in the prose introducing the relevant verse passage in Hkr (see ÍF 28, 329), where only the first half-stanza is preserved, though Skarpasker could be taken as n. acc. sg. rather than pl. in these instances.

Close

skæru ‘The battle’

1. skœra (noun f.; °; -ur): fight, conflict < skœrubildr (noun m.)

[6] skærubíldr: ‘skęrí billdr’ 1824b, ‘Skeri billdur’ with ‘skæribilldur W.’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘skæribilldur’ R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘skaeribildur’ LR

kennings

Skærubíldr
‘The battle-lancet ’
   = SWORD

The battle-lancet → SWORD

notes

[6] skærubíldr ‘the battle-lancet [SWORD]’: The emendation to skæru-/skœru- ‘battle-’, adopted first by Wisén (1886-9) and by subsequent eds, gives a more satisfying sword-kenning than the ms. readings followed by earlier eds, who read skeribildr (Rafn 1826), skeribíldr ‘sickle knife, cutting lancet’ (Sichelmesser, Pfeiffer 1860, 308), Krm (1891), which is weak semantically and unsatisfactory metrically.

Close

bíldr ‘lancet’

bíldr (noun m.; °-s) < skœrubildr (noun m.)

[6] skærubíldr: ‘skęrí billdr’ 1824b, ‘Skeri billdur’ with ‘skæribilldur W.’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘skæribilldur’ R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘skaeribildur’ LR

kennings

Skærubíldr
‘The battle-lancet ’
   = SWORD

The battle-lancet → SWORD

notes

[6] skærubíldr ‘the battle-lancet [SWORD]’: The emendation to skæru-/skœru- ‘battle-’, adopted first by Wisén (1886-9) and by subsequent eds, gives a more satisfying sword-kenning than the ms. readings followed by earlier eds, who read skeribildr (Rafn 1826), skeribíldr ‘sickle knife, cutting lancet’ (Sichelmesser, Pfeiffer 1860, 308), Krm (1891), which is weak semantically and unsatisfactory metrically.

Close

hjaldri ‘conflict’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle

Close

roðinn ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[7] roðinn: roðin 1824b, R702ˣ, ‘Rodium’ R693ˣ

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randar ‘of the shield-rim’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

máni randar
‘the moon of the shield-rim ’
   = SWORD

the moon of the shield-rim → SWORD

notes

[7] máni randar ‘the moon of the shield-rim [SWORD]’: This same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 32/3V (Eg 61); cf. de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68).

Close

máni ‘the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

kennings

máni randar
‘the moon of the shield-rim ’
   = SWORD

the moon of the shield-rim → SWORD

notes

[7] máni randar ‘the moon of the shield-rim [SWORD]’: This same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 32/3V (Eg 61); cf. de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68).

Close

Rafn ‘Rafn’

rafn (noun m.)

notes

[8] Rafn konungr ‘King Rafn’: Nothing is known of this King Rafn (listed under Hrafn in LP: 1. hrafn). It is clear from the alliteration of the preceding line that his name was intended in this instance to be spelt and pronounced without the initial <h> (cf. first Note to st. 2/10 above).

Close

konungr ‘King’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

notes

[8] Rafn konungr ‘King Rafn’: Nothing is known of this King Rafn (listed under Hrafn in LP: 1. hrafn). It is clear from the alliteration of the preceding line that his name was intended in this instance to be spelt and pronounced without the initial <h> (cf. first Note to st. 2/10 above).

Close

felli ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

Close

Dreif ‘gushed’

2. drífa (verb; °drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn): drive, rush

[9] Dreif ór hölða hausum: ‘dreíf (ur) heila haugum’(?) 147

Close

ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[9] Dreif ór hölða hausum: ‘dreíf (ur) heila haugum’(?) 147

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hölða ‘of men’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

[9] Dreif ór hölða hausum: ‘dreíf (ur) heila haugum’(?) 147

Close

hausum ‘heads’

hauss (noun m.; °hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar): skull

[9] Dreif ór hölða hausum: ‘dreíf (ur) heila haugum’(?) 147

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heitr ‘Hot’

heitr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): hot, ardent

[10] heitr á brynjur sveiti: so 6ˣ, R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘heitr a bre[...] sveiti’ 1824b, ‘[…] he(i)t(ur) a […]um su(eiti)’(?) 147, ‘heitum a brynniur sueite’ LR

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á ‘onto’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[10] heitr á brynjur sveiti: so 6ˣ, R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘heitr a bre[...] sveiti’ 1824b, ‘[…] he(i)t(ur) a […]um su(eiti)’(?) 147, ‘heitum a brynniur sueite’ LR

Close

brynjur ‘mail-coats’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat

[10] heitr á brynjur sveiti: so 6ˣ, R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘heitr a bre[...] sveiti’ 1824b, ‘[…] he(i)t(ur) a […]um su(eiti)’(?) 147, ‘heitum a brynniur sueite’ LR

Close

sveiti ‘blood’

sveiti (noun m.; °-a): blood

[10] heitr á brynjur sveiti: so 6ˣ, R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘heitr a bre[...] sveiti’ 1824b, ‘[…] he(i)t(ur) a […]um su(eiti)’(?) 147, ‘heitum a brynniur sueite’ LR

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[3-4]: The initial <r> of rendi ‘ran’ in l. 3 and of ræstr ‘released, drawn’ in l. 4 indicates that, in conformity with the rules of alliteration (see Gade 1995a, 4), the initial <h> of the mss’ hrægagarr ‘corpse-hound’ (see the next Note) was not intended to be pronounced, cf. LP: hrægagarr and first Note to st. 2/10, above.

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