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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ótt Knútdr 2I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Óttarr svarti, Knútsdrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 770.

Óttarr svartiKnútsdrápa
123

auð ‘wealth’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth < auðmildr (adj.): wealth-generous

notes

[2] auðmildr ‘wealth-generous one’: This is assumed here to be a substantival use of the adj., and a direct address to Knútr (as in Skald, and see NN §721A for Kock’s proposed parallels including Ótt Hfl 1/1). Skj B and ÍF 35 take auðmildr rather as an attributive adj. qualifying skreytir ‘adorner’.

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mildr ‘generous one’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous < auðmildr (adj.): wealth-generous

notes

[2] auðmildr ‘wealth-generous one’: This is assumed here to be a substantival use of the adj., and a direct address to Knútr (as in Skald, and see NN §721A for Kock’s proposed parallels including Ótt Hfl 1/1). Skj B and ÍF 35 take auðmildr rather as an attributive adj. qualifying skreytir ‘adorner’.

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flugar ‘to flee’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice

notes

[2] trauðir flugar ‘reluctant to flee’: Lit. ‘reluctant of flight’.

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trauðir ‘reluctant’

trauðr (adj.): reluctant

notes

[2] trauðir flugar ‘reluctant to flee’: Lit. ‘reluctant of flight’.

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skaut ‘of sail’

skaut (noun n.; °; -): sail < skauthreinn (noun m.): [sail-reindeer]

kennings

skreytir skauthreina
‘the adorner of sail-reindeer ’
   = SEAFARER

sail-reindeer → SHIPS
the adorner of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3] skauthreina ‘of sail-reindeer [SHIPS]’: Skaut- is used by Óttarr here and in Ótt Hfl 5/2 as a pars pro toto term (‘corner’ for ‘sail’); see Jesch (2001a, 163-4).

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skaut ‘of sail’

skaut (noun n.; °; -): sail < skauthreinn (noun m.): [sail-reindeer]

kennings

skreytir skauthreina
‘the adorner of sail-reindeer ’
   = SEAFARER

sail-reindeer → SHIPS
the adorner of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3] skauthreina ‘of sail-reindeer [SHIPS]’: Skaut- is used by Óttarr here and in Ótt Hfl 5/2 as a pars pro toto term (‘corner’ for ‘sail’); see Jesch (2001a, 163-4).

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hreina ‘reindeer’

1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer < skauthreinn (noun m.): [sail-reindeer]

kennings

skreytir skauthreina
‘the adorner of sail-reindeer ’
   = SEAFARER

sail-reindeer → SHIPS
the adorner of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3] skauthreina ‘of sail-reindeer [SHIPS]’: Skaut- is used by Óttarr here and in Ótt Hfl 5/2 as a pars pro toto term (‘corner’ for ‘sail’); see Jesch (2001a, 163-4).

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hreina ‘reindeer’

1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer < skauthreinn (noun m.): [sail-reindeer]

kennings

skreytir skauthreina
‘the adorner of sail-reindeer ’
   = SEAFARER

sail-reindeer → SHIPS
the adorner of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3] skauthreina ‘of sail-reindeer [SHIPS]’: Skaut- is used by Óttarr here and in Ótt Hfl 5/2 as a pars pro toto term (‘corner’ for ‘sail’); see Jesch (2001a, 163-4).

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bjó ‘prepared’

2. búa (verb; °býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)): prepare, ready, live

notes

[3] bjó ‘prepared’: An example of the use of the 3rd pers. in a stanza of otherwise 2nd pers. narration. The reading of the mss gives acceptable sense, and so is retained here, although one may speculate that the original reading was 2nd pers. bjótt (as in st. 1/5; cf. st. 8/1, where emendation to 2nd pers. is required).

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skreytir ‘the adorner’

skreytir (noun m.): adorner

kennings

skreytir skauthreina
‘the adorner of sail-reindeer ’
   = SEAFARER

sail-reindeer → SHIPS
the adorner of SHIPS → SEAFARER
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Skônunga ‘of the Skánungar’

Skánungr (noun m.; °; -ar): one of the Skánungar

notes

[4] Skônunga ‘of the Skánungar’: The people of Skáney (Skåne), now south-west Sweden but then Danish territory, which Knútr may have been defending in the battle of Á in helga (Helgeå): see Note to st. 11/3.

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liðvánir ‘the expected troops’

liðván (noun f.): [expected troops]

notes

[4] liðvánir ‘the expected troops’: The interpretation followed here is that proposed in ÍF 35 (and apparently given support in Jesch 2001a, 198), whereby liðvánir is a f. acc. pl. noun ‘troop-expectations’ (i.e. ‘expected troops’, or perhaps ‘troops of whom there are high expectations’). Although the proposed cpd seems somewhat strained and hard to parallel, it agrees with the reading of the mss. Skj B, Skald, and Knýtl 1919-25, on the other hand, all emend ‑ir to ‑ar, to produce a kenning skauthreinar Vánar ‘sail-reindeer of Ván (where Ván is a river-name: see LP: 2. Vôn). However, since skauthreinn is already a kenning for ‘ship’, this emendation is not necessary or convincing.

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Vôð ‘The cloth’

váð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): clothes

notes

[5] vôð blés ‘the cloth billowed’: I.e. the sail. This is an impersonal construction, with vôð in acc. sg.

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blés ‘billowed’

2. blása (verb; °blǽss; blés, blésu; blásinn): blow

notes

[5] vôð blés ‘the cloth billowed’: I.e. the sail. This is an impersonal construction, with vôð in acc. sg.

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gørðir ‘made’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[7] gørðir: gjǫrðu 873ˣ

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þannig ‘in that way’

þannig (adv.): thus, there, that way

[7] þannig: þenna all

notes

[7] þannig ‘in that way’: The mss have þenna, apparently a m. acc. sg. demonstrative, but there is no noun for þenna to agree with, as nafn is n. Emendation to þannig is therefore adopted here, as in Skj B, Skald and ÍF 35. The alternative emendation to þarna ‘there’ (e.g. Knýtl 1919-25) is closer to the ms. readings but does not supply skothending, and is doubtful since this and other applications of the suffix -na are more characteristic of later Icelandic.

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