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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ótt Hfl 18I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Óttarr svarti, Hǫfuðlausn 18’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 763.

Óttarr svartiHǫfuðlausn
171819

hafið ‘you have’

hafa (verb): have

[1] hafið: hefir Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

Close

bǫðvar ‘of battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle

[1] bǫðvar: bǫðva 75a

kennings

Þreytir bǫðvar,
‘Wager of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR

Wager of battle, → WARRIOR
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þreytir ‘Wager’

þreytir (noun m.): destroyer, wager, tester

[1] þreytir: ‘þręter’ Bb, þrautir 68, ‘þreytenn’ Holm4

kennings

Þreytir bǫðvar,
‘Wager of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR

Wager of battle, → WARRIOR
Close

branda ‘of swords’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

[2] branda: ‘bran’ 75a

kennings

rjóðr branda,
‘reddener of swords, ’
   = WARRIOR

reddener of swords, → WARRIOR

notes

[2] branda ‘of swords’: Brandr means ‘sword’ here but ‘flame’ in st. 17/2. — [2] rjóðr branda ‘reddener of swords [WARRIOR]’: This and þreytir bǫðvar ‘wager of battle’ or ‘contender in battle’ are taken here as parallel apostrophes within the main clause, as also by Kock (NN §§731, 1417D, 1853A; Skald) and ÍF 27. Skj B takes rjóðr branda as part of the intercalary clause.

Close

branda ‘of swords’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

[2] branda: ‘bran’ 75a

kennings

rjóðr branda,
‘reddener of swords, ’
   = WARRIOR

reddener of swords, → WARRIOR

notes

[2] branda ‘of swords’: Brandr means ‘sword’ here but ‘flame’ in st. 17/2. — [2] rjóðr branda ‘reddener of swords [WARRIOR]’: This and þreytir bǫðvar ‘wager of battle’ or ‘contender in battle’ are taken here as parallel apostrophes within the main clause, as also by Kock (NN §§731, 1417D, 1853A; Skald) and ÍF 27. Skj B takes rjóðr branda as part of the intercalary clause.

Close

rjóðr ‘reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener

[2] rjóðr ór landi: om. 75a

kennings

rjóðr branda,
‘reddener of swords, ’
   = WARRIOR

reddener of swords, → WARRIOR

notes

[2] rjóðr branda ‘reddener of swords [WARRIOR]’: This and þreytir bǫðvar ‘wager of battle’ or ‘contender in battle’ are taken here as parallel apostrophes within the main clause, as also by Kock (NN §§731, 1417D, 1853A; Skald) and ÍF 27. Skj B takes rjóðr branda as part of the intercalary clause.

Close

ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[2] rjóðr ór landi: om. 75a;    ór: af 73aˣ, 325VII

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landi ‘the land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[2] rjóðr ór landi: om. 75a

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meir ‘more in evidence’

meiri (adj. comp.; °meiran; superl. mestr): more, most

[3] meir: om. 75a

notes

[3] meir ‘more’: This appears to be the comp. of adv. mjǫk ‘much, greatly’, qualifying fannsk ‘was in evidence’, rather than of adj. mikill ‘large, great’ qualifying þrekr þinn ‘your courage’, since the adj. would be in the weak form meiri ‘greater’.

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þinn ‘your’

þinn (pron.; °f. þín, n. þitt): your

[3] þinn: þeim Holm4

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þrekr ‘courage’

þrekr (noun m.): powerful

[4] þrekr: þrek Flat

Close

Stǫkk ‘fled’

1. støkkva (verb): (str.) leap, spring; scatter

[5] Stǫkk: stóð 68, ‘stæykk’ 325VII

notes

[5, 6] stǫkk ferri þér ‘fled far from you’: The sense of this helmingr is not wholly clear. If each king fled, does this mean that Óláfr subsequently captured the northernmost king and cut out his tongue (ll. 7-8)? In Snorri’s prose, the kings are surrounded and cannot flee; one is subsequently blinded, one has his tongue cut out, and three are sent into exile. Ferri, a variant on fjarri, is indicated here by the aðalhending with hverr.

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þjóð ‘the people’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[5] þjóð: om. Bb

Close

þekkir ‘know’

1. þekkja (verb): perceive, know

[5] þekkir: þekkti 61

Close

þér ‘from you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[6] þér: þér er J2ˣ, Holm2, 325V, 75a, 73aˣ

notes

[5, 6] stǫkk ferri þér ‘fled far from you’: The sense of this helmingr is not wholly clear. If each king fled, does this mean that Óláfr subsequently captured the northernmost king and cut out his tongue (ll. 7-8)? In Snorri’s prose, the kings are surrounded and cannot flee; one is subsequently blinded, one has his tongue cut out, and three are sent into exile. Ferri, a variant on fjarri, is indicated here by the aðalhending with hverr.

Close

konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[6] konungr: gramr 325VII

Close

ferri ‘far’

ferri (adv.): far, further

[6] ferri: verri 75a, 73aˣ, fyrri 325VII, firra Tóm

notes

[5, 6] stǫkk ferri þér ‘fled far from you’: The sense of this helmingr is not wholly clear. If each king fled, does this mean that Óláfr subsequently captured the northernmost king and cut out his tongue (ll. 7-8)? In Snorri’s prose, the kings are surrounded and cannot flee; one is subsequently blinded, one has his tongue cut out, and three are sent into exile. Ferri, a variant on fjarri, is indicated here by the aðalhending with hverr.

Close

heptuð ‘restrained’

hefta (verb): restrain, end

[7] heptuð: heptu J2ˣ, 75a, 325VII, hǫfðut 68

Close

en ‘’

4. en (conj.): than

[7] en: þess 73aˣ

notes

[7] en eptir ‘afterwards’: Skj B takes en as the conj. ‘but, and’, and eptir as the adv. ‘after(wards)’ qualifying sat ‘dwelt’, but this entails the difficulty that the finite verb heptuð ‘you restrain’ precedes the conj. The interpretation here therefore follows Kock (NN §620) in taking eptir as modifying heptuð ‘restrained’ rather than sat, and in taking en(n) eptir as an adverbial phrase ‘still later, afterwards’ (NN §732; Skald). Kock emends en to the adv. enn ‘still, yet’, but en can equally be taken as an unstressed variant of enn (so ÍF 27 and this edn). 

Close

eptir ‘afterwards’

eptir (prep.): after, behind

notes

[7] en eptir ‘afterwards’: Skj B takes en as the conj. ‘but, and’, and eptir as the adv. ‘after(wards)’ qualifying sat ‘dwelt’, but this entails the difficulty that the finite verb heptuð ‘you restrain’ precedes the conj. The interpretation here therefore follows Kock (NN §620) in taking eptir as modifying heptuð ‘restrained’ rather than sat, and in taking en(n) eptir as an adverbial phrase ‘still later, afterwards’ (NN §732; Skald). Kock emends en to the adv. enn ‘still, yet’, but en can equally be taken as an unstressed variant of enn (so ÍF 27 and this edn). 

Close

orð ‘the word’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word < 2. orðreyr (noun n.): word-reed

[8] orðreyr: orðsreyr Bb, om. J, orðreyrs 75a

kennings

orðreyr,
‘the word-reed ’
   = TONGUE

the word-reed → TONGUE
Close

reyr ‘reed’

2. reyr (noun n.): reed < 2. orðreyr (noun n.): word-reed

[8] orðreyr: orðsreyr Bb, om. J, orðreyrs 75a

kennings

orðreyr,
‘the word-reed ’
   = TONGUE

the word-reed → TONGUE
Close

þess ‘of the’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[8] þess: om. 73aˣ

notes

[8] þess’s sat norðast ‘of the one who dwelt furthest north’: Snorri (ÍF 27, 105) records that Óláfr cut out the tongue of Guðrøðr, king of Guðbrandsdalar (Gudbrandsdalen, Oppland).

Close

s ‘one who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[8] þess’s sat norðast ‘of the one who dwelt furthest north’: Snorri (ÍF 27, 105) records that Óláfr cut out the tongue of Guðrøðr, king of Guðbrandsdalar (Gudbrandsdalen, Oppland).

Close

sat ‘dwelt’

sitja (verb): sit

notes

[8] þess’s sat norðast ‘of the one who dwelt furthest north’: Snorri (ÍF 27, 105) records that Óláfr cut out the tongue of Guðrøðr, king of Guðbrandsdalar (Gudbrandsdalen, Oppland).

Close

norðast ‘furthest north’

2. norðr (adv.): north

notes

[8] þess’s sat norðast ‘of the one who dwelt furthest north’: Snorri (ÍF 27, 105) records that Óláfr cut out the tongue of Guðrøðr, king of Guðbrandsdalar (Gudbrandsdalen, Oppland).

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