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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ólhv Hryn 8II

Lauren Goetting (ed.) 2009, ‘Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 664-5.

Óláfr hvítaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda
789

Hilmir ‘The ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

Hilmir borðs hildar
‘The ruler of the board of battle ’
   = WARRIOR = Skúli

the board of battle → SHIELD
The ruler of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Skúli
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hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

kennings

Hilmir borðs hildar
‘The ruler of the board of battle ’
   = WARRIOR = Skúli

the board of battle → SHIELD
The ruler of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Skúli
Close

hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

kennings

Hilmir borðs hildar
‘The ruler of the board of battle ’
   = WARRIOR = Skúli

the board of battle → SHIELD
The ruler of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Skúli
Close

borðs ‘of the board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[2] borðs: barðs 81a

kennings

Hilmir borðs hildar
‘The ruler of the board of battle ’
   = WARRIOR = Skúli

the board of battle → SHIELD
The ruler of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Skúli
Close

borðs ‘of the board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[2] borðs: barðs 81a

kennings

Hilmir borðs hildar
‘The ruler of the board of battle ’
   = WARRIOR = Skúli

the board of battle → SHIELD
The ruler of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Skúli
Close

Upp ‘Opp’

upp (adv.): up < Upplǫnd (noun n.): Opplandene

notes

[2] Upplǫnd ‘Opplandene’: Includes the present-day districts of Hadeland, Romerike, Gudbrandsdalen and Østerdalen in south-eastern Norway.

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lǫnd ‘landene’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < Upplǫnd (noun n.): Opplandene

[2] ‑lǫnd: om. 81a

notes

[2] Upplǫnd ‘Opplandene’: Includes the present-day districts of Hadeland, Romerike, Gudbrandsdalen and Østerdalen in south-eastern Norway.

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

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skókusk ‘shook’

2. skaka (verb): shake

[3] skókusk: skárusk all

notes

[3] skókusk ‘shook’: Following Kock (NN §1346), skárusk ‘were cut’ (so all mss) has been emended to skókusk ‘shook’ to supply the missing internal rhyme in l. 3 (skókusk : Láku). Merki skókusk ‘standards shook’ is preferable to merki skárusk ‘standards were cut’, since the motif of standards shaking or waving is attested in battle contexts elsewhere in skaldic poetry (cf. merki hristisk ‘the banner waved’, Arn Þorfdr 18/3, 4; gullmerkð vé skolla ‘gold-embroidered banners flutter’, Þfagr Sveinn 5/5, 8).

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á ‘at’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[3] á Láku ‘at Låke’: Farmstead in Nannestad, located in the district of Romerike, south-eastern Norway.

Close

Láku ‘Låke’

Láka (noun f.): [Låke]

notes

[3] á Láku ‘at Låke’: Farmstead in Nannestad, located in the district of Romerike, south-eastern Norway.

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skǫrpum ‘by sharp’

skarpr (adj.): sharp, bitter

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Þunnum ‘the slender’

þunnr (adj.): slender, thin

[5] Þunnum: þannig Flat

kennings

þunnum Vǫlum stinga
‘the slender Valir of rods ’
   = SHIPS

the slender Valir of rods → SHIPS
Close

til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

notes

[5] til Þrándheims ‘to Trøndelag’: So F, 42ˣ, 81a, 8, Flat. Þróndheims (so E) is an ONorw. form (see CVC: Þróndheimr). Þrándheimr refers to the geographic region of Trøndelag, located in central Norway, rather than to the city of Trondheim proper, which is called Niðaróss in the prose text and elsewhere (for the history of the names of Trondheim, see Gade 1998 and the literature cited there).

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Þránd ‘Trønde’

[5] Þránd‑: so all others, Þrónd‑ E

notes

[5] til Þrándheims ‘to Trøndelag’: So F, 42ˣ, 81a, 8, Flat. Þróndheims (so E) is an ONorw. form (see CVC: Þróndheimr). Þrándheimr refers to the geographic region of Trøndelag, located in central Norway, rather than to the city of Trondheim proper, which is called Niðaróss in the prose text and elsewhere (for the history of the names of Trondheim, see Gade 1998 and the literature cited there).

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heims ‘lag’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < Þrándheimr (noun m.): Trøndelag

notes

[5] til Þrándheims ‘to Trøndelag’: So F, 42ˣ, 81a, 8, Flat. Þróndheims (so E) is an ONorw. form (see CVC: Þróndheimr). Þrándheimr refers to the geographic region of Trøndelag, located in central Norway, rather than to the city of Trondheim proper, which is called Niðaróss in the prose text and elsewhere (for the history of the names of Trondheim, see Gade 1998 and the literature cited there).

Close

sunnan ‘from the south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

Close

þingfrœkn ‘The battle-daring’

þingfrœkn (adj.): [battle-daring]

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Vǫlum ‘Valir’

Valr (noun m.; °; -ir): Valr, ?horse

[6] Vǫlum: ‘valum’ or ‘volum’ corrected from ‘velum’ F

kennings

þunnum Vǫlum stinga
‘the slender Valir of rods ’
   = SHIPS

the slender Valir of rods → SHIPS

notes

[6] Vǫlum ‘Valir <horses>’: For Valr in ship-kennings, see Note to Arn Hryn 19/4.

Close

stinga ‘of rods’

stingr (noun m.; °; -ir): rod

[6] stinga: so all others, ‘stindga’ E

kennings

þunnum Vǫlum stinga
‘the slender Valir of rods ’
   = SHIPS

the slender Valir of rods → SHIPS

notes

[6] stinga ‘of rods’: Lit. ‘of that which stabs, sticks’. The word stingar (m. nom. pl.) is attested twice (see also SnSt Ht 73/7III) and possibly refers to a set of parallel rods on a ship’s prow that were designed to keep warriors from boarding (see Falk 1912, 37, and LP: stingr = brandr).

Close

herskip ‘warships’

herskip (noun n.): warship

Close

hilmir ‘ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

hyggjugegn hilmir grundar
‘the clever-minded ruler of the land ’
   = Hákon

the clever-minded ruler of the land → Hákon
Close

grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

hyggjugegn hilmir grundar
‘the clever-minded ruler of the land ’
   = Hákon

the clever-minded ruler of the land → Hákon
Close

hyggju ‘the clever’

1. hyggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): thought, mind

[8] hyggju: hjoggu 42ˣ, hygginn 8

kennings

hyggjugegn hilmir grundar
‘the clever-minded ruler of the land ’
   = Hákon

the clever-minded ruler of the land → Hákon
Close

gegn ‘minded’

1. gegn (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str): reliable

kennings

hyggjugegn hilmir grundar
‘the clever-minded ruler of the land ’
   = Hákon

the clever-minded ruler of the land → Hákon
Close

gaf ‘spared’

gefa (verb): give

[8] gaf: fekk Flat

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The first helmingr refers to the battle of Låke (9 March 1240), fought between Skúli and his men and the Birkibeinar, led by Jarl Knútr Hákonarson. The Birkibeinar were routed in the battle and Knútr fled to Tønsberg. The second helmingr describes Hákon’s journey by ship to Trøndelag (February 1240) to confront Skúli there and check his growing power. Once Hákon arrived, he found that Skúli had fled south with 500 men, leaving behind many of his adherents, to whom Hákon granted clemency.

For the battle of Låke, see also Sturl Hákkv 10.

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