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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Krm 16VIII

Rory McTurk (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Poems, Krákumál 16’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 749.

Anonymous PoemsKrákumál
151617

Hjuggu ‘hewed’

hǫggva (verb): to strike, put to death, cut, hew

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘H: v. m h.’ R702ˣ, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi LR, R693ˣ, 6ˣ

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vér ‘We’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘H: v. m h.’ R702ˣ, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi LR, R693ˣ, 6ˣ

Close

með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘H: v. m h.’ R702ˣ, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi LR, R693ˣ, 6ˣ

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hjörvi ‘the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

[1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘H: v. m h.’ R702ˣ, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi LR, R693ˣ, 6ˣ

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Hverr ‘Each man’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[2] Hverr: ‘hvor’ LR, R693ˣ

Close

þverr ‘athwart’

þverr (adj.): across

Close

um ‘’

1. um (prep.): about, around

[2] um: of 6ˣ

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geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

[3] geira hríðar (‘geyra hridar’): ‘geira hrydur’ LR, ‘Gera broder’ with ‘Geira brudur al.’ in margin

kennings

gaukr hríðar geira
‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the cuckoo of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3-4] gaukr hríðar geira ‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’: As de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68) notes, this kenning may show the influence of Hfr Óldr 5/7-8I, where the kenning gjóði hríðar geira ‘the osprey of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’ occurs.

Close

geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

[3] geira hríðar (‘geyra hridar’): ‘geira hrydur’ LR, ‘Gera broder’ with ‘Geira brudur al.’ in margin

kennings

gaukr hríðar geira
‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the cuckoo of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3-4] gaukr hríðar geira ‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’: As de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68) notes, this kenning may show the influence of Hfr Óldr 5/7-8I, where the kenning gjóði hríðar geira ‘the osprey of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’ occurs.

Close

hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[3] geira hríðar (‘geyra hridar’): ‘geira hrydur’ LR, ‘Gera broder’ with ‘Geira brudur al.’ in margin

kennings

gaukr hríðar geira
‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the cuckoo of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3-4] gaukr hríðar geira ‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’: As de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68) notes, this kenning may show the influence of Hfr Óldr 5/7-8I, where the kenning gjóði hríðar geira ‘the osprey of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’ occurs.

Close

hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[3] geira hríðar (‘geyra hridar’): ‘geira hrydur’ LR, ‘Gera broder’ with ‘Geira brudur al.’ in margin

kennings

gaukr hríðar geira
‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the cuckoo of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3-4] gaukr hríðar geira ‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’: As de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68) notes, this kenning may show the influence of Hfr Óldr 5/7-8I, where the kenning gjóði hríðar geira ‘the osprey of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’ occurs.

Close

gaukr ‘the cuckoo’

gaukr (noun m.; °dat. -): cuckoo

[4] gaukr at sverða leiki: ‘geto vid soknar lęte’ 6ˣ

kennings

gaukr hríðar geira
‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the cuckoo of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3-4] gaukr hríðar geira ‘the cuckoo of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’: As de Vries (1964-7, II, 40 n. 68) notes, this kenning may show the influence of Hfr Óldr 5/7-8I, where the kenning gjóði hríðar geira ‘the osprey of the storm of spears [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE]’ occurs.

Close

at ‘in’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[4] gaukr at sverða leiki: ‘geto vid soknar lęte’ 6ˣ

Close

sverða ‘of swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

[4] gaukr at sverða leiki: ‘geto vid soknar lęte’ 6ˣ

kennings

leiki sverða.
‘the game of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the game of swords. → BATTLE
Close

leiki ‘the game’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play

[4] gaukr at sverða leiki: ‘geto vid soknar lęte’ 6ˣ

kennings

leiki sverða.
‘the game of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the game of swords. → BATTLE
Close

ei ‘did not’

3. ei (adv.): not

Close

Írlandi ‘over Ireland’

Írland (noun n.): [Ireland]

Close

varð ‘came about’

1. verða (verb): become, be

Close

rítar ‘shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

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Mar ‘Mar’

notes

[6, 8] Marstan konungr ‘King Marstan’: It has not proved possible to identify this king, stated here to have ruled over Ireland, and described in LP: Marstan as sagnkonge ‘a legendary king’. A search for his name or one approximating to it in the lists and genealogies of Irish kings and high-kings in Byrne (1973, 275-301), and Jaski (2000, 301-16, 342-8), has proved unavailing. The present ed. follows Finnur Jónsson (1905, 175 n. 2), in treating with scepticism Storm’s (1878, 112 n. 1) view that the name Marstan here reflects the Irish name Muirchertach (now Murdoch, ON Myrkjartan), a common enough name for Irish kings, according to Byrne (1973, 90, 146, 243) at least.

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stan ‘stan’

[8] ‑stan: ‑steinn 6ˣ

notes

[6, 8] Marstan konungr ‘King Marstan’: It has not proved possible to identify this king, stated here to have ruled over Ireland, and described in LP: Marstan as sagnkonge ‘a legendary king’. A search for his name or one approximating to it in the lists and genealogies of Irish kings and high-kings in Byrne (1973, 275-301), and Jaski (2000, 301-16, 342-8), has proved unavailing. The present ed. follows Finnur Jónsson (1905, 175 n. 2), in treating with scepticism Storm’s (1878, 112 n. 1) view that the name Marstan here reflects the Irish name Muirchertach (now Murdoch, ON Myrkjartan), a common enough name for Irish kings, according to Byrne (1973, 90, 146, 243) at least.

Close

konungr ‘King’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

notes

[6, 8] Marstan konungr ‘King Marstan’: It has not proved possible to identify this king, stated here to have ruled over Ireland, and described in LP: Marstan as sagnkonge ‘a legendary king’. A search for his name or one approximating to it in the lists and genealogies of Irish kings and high-kings in Byrne (1973, 275-301), and Jaski (2000, 301-16, 342-8), has proved unavailing. The present ed. follows Finnur Jónsson (1905, 175 n. 2), in treating with scepticism Storm’s (1878, 112 n. 1) view that the name Marstan here reflects the Irish name Muirchertach (now Murdoch, ON Myrkjartan), a common enough name for Irish kings, according to Byrne (1973, 90, 146, 243) at least.

Close

fasta ‘to fast’

3. fasta (verb): fast

Close

Varð ‘was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

notes

[10] valtafn varð gefit hrafni ‘corpse-prey was given to the raven’: De Vries (1938, 722 n. 78) lists this line as an instance of the influence on Krm of RvHbreiðm Hl 17/7-8III, where the clause hrafn hafði jafnan hrátt tafn at slíta ‘the raven always had raw food to tear’ occurs.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[9] í Veðrarfirði ‘in Waterford’: The reference is to the Norse town, now the city of Waterford, that developed from a mid-C9th fortified landing place (OIr. longphort) near the mouth of the river Suir in south-east Ireland (cf. Haywood 2000, 204). Oftedal (1976, 133) explains the name Waterford as originally either ON Veðra(r)fjǫrðr ‘ram fjord’, with its first element understood as either gen. sg. (veðrar) or gen. pl. (veðra) of veðr ‘wether, ram’, or ON Veðrafjǫrðr ‘windy fjord’ with its first element understood as gen. pl. (veðra) of veðr ‘weather, wind’. The ms. readings above seem to allow for either possibility; previous eds, from Rafn (1826) to Finnur Jónsson (1893b) inclusive, read Veðra-; the present ed. follows Finnur Jónsson (1905; Skj B), as well as Skald, in reading Veðrar-. Rǫgnvaldr/Rægnald, possibly a grandson of Imhar of Dublin (the latter a likely prototype of Ragnarr loðbrók’s son Ívarr), took Waterford in 917 before departing for England the following year and establishing himself as king in York in 919 (see Note to st. 15/6 above, and Downham 2007, 31-2, 91-5).

Close

Veðrar ‘Water’

[9] Veðrar‑ (‘vedrar’): Veðra LR, R693ˣ, 6ˣ

notes

[9] í Veðrarfirði ‘in Waterford’: The reference is to the Norse town, now the city of Waterford, that developed from a mid-C9th fortified landing place (OIr. longphort) near the mouth of the river Suir in south-east Ireland (cf. Haywood 2000, 204). Oftedal (1976, 133) explains the name Waterford as originally either ON Veðra(r)fjǫrðr ‘ram fjord’, with its first element understood as either gen. sg. (veðrar) or gen. pl. (veðra) of veðr ‘wether, ram’, or ON Veðrafjǫrðr ‘windy fjord’ with its first element understood as gen. pl. (veðra) of veðr ‘weather, wind’. The ms. readings above seem to allow for either possibility; previous eds, from Rafn (1826) to Finnur Jónsson (1893b) inclusive, read Veðra-; the present ed. follows Finnur Jónsson (1905; Skj B), as well as Skald, in reading Veðrar-. Rǫgnvaldr/Rægnald, possibly a grandson of Imhar of Dublin (the latter a likely prototype of Ragnarr loðbrók’s son Ívarr), took Waterford in 917 before departing for England the following year and establishing himself as king in York in 919 (see Note to st. 15/6 above, and Downham 2007, 31-2, 91-5).

Close

firði ‘ford’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord

notes

[9] í Veðrarfirði ‘in Waterford’: The reference is to the Norse town, now the city of Waterford, that developed from a mid-C9th fortified landing place (OIr. longphort) near the mouth of the river Suir in south-east Ireland (cf. Haywood 2000, 204). Oftedal (1976, 133) explains the name Waterford as originally either ON Veðra(r)fjǫrðr ‘ram fjord’, with its first element understood as either gen. sg. (veðrar) or gen. pl. (veðra) of veðr ‘wether, ram’, or ON Veðrafjǫrðr ‘windy fjord’ with its first element understood as gen. pl. (veðra) of veðr ‘weather, wind’. The ms. readings above seem to allow for either possibility; previous eds, from Rafn (1826) to Finnur Jónsson (1893b) inclusive, read Veðra-; the present ed. follows Finnur Jónsson (1905; Skj B), as well as Skald, in reading Veðrar-. Rǫgnvaldr/Rægnald, possibly a grandson of Imhar of Dublin (the latter a likely prototype of Ragnarr loðbrók’s son Ívarr), took Waterford in 917 before departing for England the following year and establishing himself as king in York in 919 (see Note to st. 15/6 above, and Downham 2007, 31-2, 91-5).

Close

valtafn ‘Corpse-prey’

valtafn (noun n.): [slaughter-food]

notes

[10] valtafn varð gefit hrafni ‘corpse-prey was given to the raven’: De Vries (1938, 722 n. 78) lists this line as an instance of the influence on Krm of RvHbreiðm Hl 17/7-8III, where the clause hrafn hafði jafnan hrátt tafn at slíta ‘the raven always had raw food to tear’ occurs.

Close

gefit ‘given’

gefa (verb): give

notes

[10] valtafn varð gefit hrafni ‘corpse-prey was given to the raven’: De Vries (1938, 722 n. 78) lists this line as an instance of the influence on Krm of RvHbreiðm Hl 17/7-8III, where the clause hrafn hafði jafnan hrátt tafn at slíta ‘the raven always had raw food to tear’ occurs.

Close

hrafni ‘to the raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

notes

[10] valtafn varð gefit hrafni ‘corpse-prey was given to the raven’: De Vries (1938, 722 n. 78) lists this line as an instance of the influence on Krm of RvHbreiðm Hl 17/7-8III, where the clause hrafn hafði jafnan hrátt tafn at slíta ‘the raven always had raw food to tear’ occurs.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

This stanza is not found in 1824b and apparently not in 147 either: in both these mss, 1824b (80r-v) and 147 (108v), the text runs straight on to st. 17. It may however be noted that between sts 23 and 24 as preserved on fol. 103r of 147 there is space sufficient to accommodate one stanza and apparently containing text, which, however, Olsen (Ragn 1906-8, 188) could not read and which is still illegible.  — [3-4]: The present ed. follows the reading of the lines adopted by Finnur Jónsson (1905; Skj B) and by Kock (Skald). Previous eds from Rafn (1826) to Finnur Jónsson (1893b) inclusive follow here, reading: glaðr varð gera bróðir | getu við sóknar læti, i.e. bróðir gera varð glaðr getu við læti sóknar ‘the brother of the greedy one <wolf> became happy at [the prospect of nutritional] gain in the tumult of the onslaught’. — [7]: This line shows some verbal similarities to RvHbreiðm Hl 76/3III rít hykk malma meittu (variant reading: mættu) ‘I believe swords sliced (or met) the shield’.

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