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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ólhv Hryn 4II

Lauren Goetting (ed.) 2009, ‘Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 661-2.

Óláfr hvítaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda
345

Snœfrir ‘Skilful’

snœfr (adj.): vigorous, skilful, strong

notes

[1, 4] snœfrir vinir hvárskis ‘skilful friends of neither [prince]’: I.e. the liegemen of Hákon and Skúli, whose backbiting frequently brought the two into conflict.

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enn ‘again’

2. enn (adv.): still, yet, again

[1] enn: einn 42ˣ

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meðal ‘between’

meðal (prep.): between

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kóðu ‘said’

kveða (verb): say, recite

[2] kóðu: kóðusk 304ˣ, 325VIII 5 b, Flat

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varla ‘hardly’

varla (adv.): hardly

[2] varla: so F, 42ˣ, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat, ‘uallḍa’ E, valda 325VIII 5 b

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haldask ‘kept’

halda (verb): hold, keep

[2] haldask: ‘halldar’ 304ˣ

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ǫðlings ‘the chieftain’s’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

[3] ǫðlings heit: ǫðling sleit 304ˣ

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heit ‘promises’

2. heita (verb): be called, promise

[3] ǫðlings heit: ǫðling sleit 304ˣ;    heit: so F, 42ˣ, 81a, ‘hæitt’ E, ‘hǽst’ 325VIII 5 b, hest Flat

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all ‘mighty ruler’

all- ((prefix)): very < allvaldr (noun m.): mighty ruler

[3] all‑: ‘alld‑’ F

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árskapðan ‘the long-standing’

árskapaðr (adj.): [long-standing]

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vinir ‘friends’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

notes

[1, 4] snœfrir vinir hvárskis ‘skilful friends of neither [prince]’: I.e. the liegemen of Hákon and Skúli, whose backbiting frequently brought the two into conflict.

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hvárskis ‘of neither’

hvárki (conj.): neither

notes

[1, 4] snœfrir vinir hvárskis ‘skilful friends of neither [prince]’: I.e. the liegemen of Hákon and Skúli, whose backbiting frequently brought the two into conflict.

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bjoggi ‘steered’

2. búa (verb; °býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)): prepare, ready, live

[5] bjoggi: so F, 42ˣ, bjó E, 81a, ‘biuggi’ 304ˣ, ‘bjuggi’ 325VIII 5 b, bygði Flat

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siklingr ‘king’

siklingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

[5] siklingr: siklings 42ˣ, 304ˣ, sikling 81a

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sunnan ‘from the south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

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sunda ‘of the seas’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

kennings

vigg sunda
‘steeds of the seas ’
   = SHIPS

steeds of the seas → SHIPS
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vigg ‘steeds’

vigg (noun n.): steed

kennings

vigg sunda
‘steeds of the seas ’
   = SHIPS

steeds of the seas → SHIPS
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ýtar ‘men’

ýtr (noun m.): man; launcher

[7] ýtar: ‘vrar’ 81a

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brugðusk ‘abandoned’

bregða (verb; °bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn): pull, jerk, break; change

[7] brugðusk: so 42ˣ, 81a, Flat, ‘rygduz’ E, ‘brugd og’ 304ˣ, ‘brygduz’ 325VIII 5 b

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nýtum ‘the able’

nýtr (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr): useful, able

[7] nýtum: mætu 42ˣ, mætum Flat

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fjall ‘the mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[8] með: við 304ˣ

notes

[8] með snjalla drengi ‘with brave men’: This phrase could be construed with either the first cl. of the second helmingr (minnigr siklingr bjoggi vigg sunda sunnan ‘the mindful king steered steeds of the seas from the south’; so Skj B) or with the second cl. (en jarl stǫkk undan austr of fjall ‘and the jarl fled east across the mountains’; so NN §1344). While the first option is syntactically simpler, the second is contextually preferable, since the prose text, l. 7 of the st. and Anon (Hák) 3 indicate that Skúli was abandoned by many of his men.

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drengi ‘men’

drengr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja): man, warrior

notes

[8] drengi (m. acc. pl.) ‘men’: Used as an acc. of accompaniment with the preposition með ‘with’ (l. 8). The origin and meaning of the word drengr (m. nom. sg.) are much debated by scholars. The most basic meaning of the term in skaldic poetry, as in the present st., is ‘(youthful) man’, which often carried the connotation ‘warrior’ by hyponymy (see Goetting 2006). — [8] með snjalla drengi ‘with brave men’: This phrase could be construed with either the first cl. of the second helmingr (minnigr siklingr bjoggi vigg sunda sunnan ‘the mindful king steered steeds of the seas from the south’; so Skj B) or with the second cl. (en jarl stǫkk undan austr of fjall ‘and the jarl fled east across the mountains’; so NN §1344). While the first option is syntactically simpler, the second is contextually preferable, since the prose text, l. 7 of the st. and Anon (Hák) 3 indicate that Skúli was abandoned by many of his men.

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drengi ‘men’

drengr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja): man, warrior

notes

[8] drengi (m. acc. pl.) ‘men’: Used as an acc. of accompaniment with the preposition með ‘with’ (l. 8). The origin and meaning of the word drengr (m. nom. sg.) are much debated by scholars. The most basic meaning of the term in skaldic poetry, as in the present st., is ‘(youthful) man’, which often carried the connotation ‘warrior’ by hyponymy (see Goetting 2006). — [8] með snjalla drengi ‘with brave men’: This phrase could be construed with either the first cl. of the second helmingr (minnigr siklingr bjoggi vigg sunda sunnan ‘the mindful king steered steeds of the seas from the south’; so Skj B) or with the second cl. (en jarl stǫkk undan austr of fjall ‘and the jarl fled east across the mountains’; so NN §1344). While the first option is syntactically simpler, the second is contextually preferable, since the prose text, l. 7 of the st. and Anon (Hák) 3 indicate that Skúli was abandoned by many of his men.

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snjalla ‘brave’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold

notes

[8] með snjalla drengi ‘with brave men’: This phrase could be construed with either the first cl. of the second helmingr (minnigr siklingr bjoggi vigg sunda sunnan ‘the mindful king steered steeds of the seas from the south’; so Skj B) or with the second cl. (en jarl stǫkk undan austr of fjall ‘and the jarl fled east across the mountains’; so NN §1344). While the first option is syntactically simpler, the second is contextually preferable, since the prose text, l. 7 of the st. and Anon (Hák) 3 indicate that Skúli was abandoned by many of his men.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In 1236 Hákon sailed with his fleet from Bergen to Trondheim to meet with Skúli and reconcile their differences. Not daring to meet him there, Skúli fled south over the mountains with his men, many of whom deserted him.

See also Anon (Hák) 3. — [2-4] aldir kóðu heit ǫðlings varla haldask við mætan allvald ‘people said the chieftain’s promises to the excellent mighty ruler were hardly kept’: I.e. the pledges Skúli made to Hákon at the assembly in Bergen in 1233 (see st. 3/7 above).

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