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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ólhv Hák 1II

Lauren Goetting (ed.) 2009, ‘Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson, Poem about Hákon 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 657-8.

Óláfr hvítaskáld ÞórðarsonPoem about Hákon1

Vígstorma ‘of battle-storms’

vígstormr (noun m.): [battle-storms]

kennings

Valdr vígstorma,
‘Controller of battle-storms, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

Controller of battle-storms, → WARRIOR = Hákon
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Vermum ‘the Vermir’

vermir (noun m.): vermir

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valdr ‘Controller’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

[2] valdr: vald 42ˣ

kennings

Valdr vígstorma,
‘Controller of battle-storms, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

Controller of battle-storms, → WARRIOR = Hákon
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fláræði ‘for their treason’

fláræði (noun n.): treachery, treason

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gjalda ‘you repaid’

1. gjalda (verb): pay, repay

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lézt ‘you made’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[3] lézt (‘léztu’): létu 81a, Flat

notes

[3] lézt ‘you made’: The pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let, allow’ that is used to address Hákon switches from the informal lézt (2nd pers. sg.) ‘you made’ to the formal létuð (2nd pers. pl.) ‘you made’ (l. 7).

Close

gim ‘fire’

gim (noun n.): gem, jewel

[3] gim: gín F, gunn 42ˣ, Flat

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geisa ‘rage’

geisa (verb): rage

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gekk ‘rose’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

notes

[4] eldr gekk of sjǫt rekka ‘flames rose above men’s houses’: Cf. Arn Hardr 1/2, eldr rann of sjǫt manna ‘flames ran through men’s houses’.

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eldr ‘flames’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

notes

[4] eldr gekk of sjǫt rekka ‘flames rose above men’s houses’: Cf. Arn Hardr 1/2, eldr rann of sjǫt manna ‘flames ran through men’s houses’.

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of ‘above’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[4] eldr gekk of sjǫt rekka ‘flames rose above men’s houses’: Cf. Arn Hardr 1/2, eldr rann of sjǫt manna ‘flames ran through men’s houses’.

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sjǫt ‘houses’

sjǫt (noun n.): dwelling

notes

[4] eldr gekk of sjǫt rekka ‘flames rose above men’s houses’: Cf. Arn Hardr 1/2, eldr rann of sjǫt manna ‘flames ran through men’s houses’.

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rekka ‘men’s’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

notes

[4] eldr gekk of sjǫt rekka ‘flames rose above men’s houses’: Cf. Arn Hardr 1/2, eldr rann of sjǫt manna ‘flames ran through men’s houses’.

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kvǫl ‘torment’

kvǫl (noun f.; °-ar; -ar/-ir): torment, torture

[5] kvǫl: om. 81a

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

[5] þás (‘þá er’): þá 81a

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kyndisk ‘was kindled’

kynda (verb): kindle

[5] kyndisk: so F, 81a, Flat, ‘kyndis’ E, 42ˣ

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kapps ‘the tremendously’

kapp (noun n.; °-s; *-): strength, vigour, courage

notes

[6] kapps ‘tremendously’: Used adverbially as an intensifier (see LP: kapp). See also Gísl Magnkv 12/7.

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gegn ‘righteous’

1. gegn (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str): reliable

[7] gegn: gagn Flat

kennings

gegn frǫmuðr hjaldréls,
‘righteous promoter of the battle-shower, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

righteous promoter of the battle-shower, → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

létuð ‘you made’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[7] létuð: létu Flat

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hegna ‘punish’

hegna (verb): punish

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hjaldr ‘of the battle’

2. hjaldr (noun n.): battle < hjaldrél (noun n.)

[8] hjaldr‑: hjǫr F

kennings

gegn frǫmuðr hjaldréls,
‘righteous promoter of the battle-shower, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

righteous promoter of the battle-shower, → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[8] hjaldréls ‘of the battle-shower’: This could refer to ‘spears, arrows’ in specific or ‘battle’ in general (see Meissner 144, 178).

Close

éls ‘shower’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < hjaldrél (noun n.)

kennings

gegn frǫmuðr hjaldréls,
‘righteous promoter of the battle-shower, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

righteous promoter of the battle-shower, → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[8] hjaldréls ‘of the battle-shower’: This could refer to ‘spears, arrows’ in specific or ‘battle’ in general (see Meissner 144, 178).

Close

frǫmuðr ‘promoter’

frǫmuðr (noun m.): promoter

kennings

gegn frǫmuðr hjaldréls,
‘righteous promoter of the battle-shower, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

righteous promoter of the battle-shower, → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In 1225 King Hákon and his retinue marched into Värmland, Sweden, to punish the people for supporting the Ribbungar and sending men to harry in Norway. On the Saturday before Lent, Hákon burned the farms in the parish of Eda, located in south-western Värmland, which had been abandoned by the time of his arrival.

For Hákon’s campaign in Värmland, see also Sturl Hákkv 7-8 and Sturl Hákfl 4.

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