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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Mark Eirdr 22II

Jayne Carroll (ed.) 2009, ‘Markús Skeggjason, Eiríksdrápa 22’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 450-1.

Markús SkeggjasonEiríksdrápa
212223

Flaustum ‘with ships’

flaustr (noun n.): ship

[1] Flaustum: flaustrum 180b

notes

[1] flaustum ‘with ships’: For the later form flaustrum ‘with ships’ (so 180b), see Note to st. 4/2 above.

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folka ‘of men’

folk (noun n.): people

[1] folka: folk á 180b

kennings

Treystir folka
‘The trier of men ’
   = RULER

The trier of men → RULER
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treystir ‘The trier’

treystir (noun m.): trier, encourager, occupier

kennings

Treystir folka
‘The trier of men ’
   = RULER

The trier of men → RULER
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foldar ‘of the land’

fold (noun f.): land

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brimi ‘the wave’

brimi (noun n.): [wave]

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kníða ‘lashed’

knýja (verb): press forward, urge, drive

[2] kníða: ‘kuida’ 180b

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ǫrr ‘the generous’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

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læsa ‘to be sealed’

læsa (verb): enclose, lock

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úrga ‘the wet’

1. úrigr (adj.): wet

[4] úrga: víga 873ˣ

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] ok: á 873ˣ

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svalri ‘a chilly’

svalr (adj.): cool

[4] svalri: snjallri 180b

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hersahersar

hersir (noun m.; °-is; -ar): cheiftan

kennings

Harða nýtr reifir hersa
‘The very bountiful gladdener of hersar
   = RULER

The very bountiful gladdener of hersar → RULER
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reifir ‘gladdener’

reifir (noun m.): presenter, gladdener

kennings

Harða nýtr reifir hersa
‘The very bountiful gladdener of hersar
   = RULER

The very bountiful gladdener of hersar → RULER
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harða ‘The very’

harða (adv.): very

[6] harða: harðla 180b

kennings

Harða nýtr reifir hersa
‘The very bountiful gladdener of hersar
   = RULER

The very bountiful gladdener of hersar → RULER
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nýtr ‘bountiful’

nýtr (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr): useful, able

kennings

Harða nýtr reifir hersa
‘The very bountiful gladdener of hersar
   = RULER

The very bountiful gladdener of hersar → RULER
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við ‘during’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[7] við olman hergang ‘during the furious onslaught’: Skj B and Skald adopt the 180b variant hernað ‘campaign’ (not so ÍF 35), which looks like a lectio facilior.

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hergang ‘onslaught’

hergangr (noun m.): [onslaught]

[7] hergang: hernað 180b

notes

[7] við olman hergang ‘during the furious onslaught’: Skj B and Skald adopt the 180b variant hernað ‘campaign’ (not so ÍF 35), which looks like a lectio facilior.

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olman ‘the furious’

olmr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): fierce, furious

notes

[7] við olman hergang ‘during the furious onslaught’: Skj B and Skald adopt the 180b variant hernað ‘campaign’ (not so ÍF 35), which looks like a lectio facilior.

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Eydana ‘of the Island-Danes’

eydan (noun m.): island-Dane

notes

[8] Eydana ‘of the Island-Danes’: Skj B construes this with hilmir (hilmir Eydana ‘the prince of the Island-Danes’), which is possible but unlikely since hilmir is otherwise not accompanied by an ethnic qualifier (see LP: hilmir). For Eydanir, see also Arn Hardr 6/2.

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skjaldborg ‘shield-wall’

skjaldborg (noun f.): shield-wall

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After the campaign, Eiríkr left men behind in Wendland to secure that country, and he then set sail for Denmark via the island of Öland.

For the custom of blockading the coasts with ships and spears, see Notes to Steinn Óldr 8/4 and Halli XI Fl 1/1, 5. — It looks as though the compiler of Knýtl misunderstood the geographical information provided by the st. (ÍF 35, 227): Hann kom fyrst við Eyland skipum sínum, er hann kom sunnan af Vinðlandi, sem Markús segir ‘He first came to Öland with his ships when he returned north from Wendland, as Markús says’. The island of Öland (Eyland) is located in the Baltic off the south-eastern coast of Sweden (Småland), and it was never a part of Denmark. While it is by no means unlikely that Eiríkr could have put to shore in Öland on his way back, he certainly had no reason to fortify or protect that island. The misunderstanding most likely arose from the phrase hauðr Eydana ‘the earth of the Island-Danes’ (l. 8), which refers to the Dan. islands off the south-eastern coast of Denmark and not to Öland. Hence the st. seems to describe Eiríkr securing the coasts of Denmark (and the Dan. islands) before (or after?) he was campaigning in Wendland.

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