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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Kolb Jónv 4VII

Beatrice La Farge (ed.) 2007, ‘Kolbeinn Tumason, Jónsvísur 4’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 226.

Kolbeinn TumasonJónsvísur
345

lé*zt ‘let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] lé*zt: ‘leitz’ 649a

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

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þú ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

hag ‘the circumstances’

1. hagr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): situation, condition

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

hreinnar ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

drótningar ‘queen’

dróttning (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-, acc. -u/-; -ar): queen

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

hafs ‘of the sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea

kennings

hafs hyrþǫll
‘sea’s fire-fir sapling’
   = WOMAN = Mary

the fire of the sea → GOLD
the fir sapling of the GOLD → WOMAN = Mary

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

hafs ‘of the sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea

kennings

hafs hyrþǫll
‘sea’s fire-fir sapling’
   = WOMAN = Mary

the fire of the sea → GOLD
the fir sapling of the GOLD → WOMAN = Mary

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

meðan ‘as long as’

meðan (conj.): while

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrþǫll (noun f.)

kennings

hafs hyrþǫll
‘sea’s fire-fir sapling’
   = WOMAN = Mary

the fire of the sea → GOLD
the fir sapling of the GOLD → WOMAN = Mary

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrþǫll (noun f.)

kennings

hafs hyrþǫll
‘sea’s fire-fir sapling’
   = WOMAN = Mary

the fire of the sea → GOLD
the fir sapling of the GOLD → WOMAN = Mary

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

þǫll ‘the fir sapling’

þǫll (noun f.): fir-tree < hyrþǫll (noun f.)

kennings

hafs hyrþǫll
‘sea’s fire-fir sapling’
   = WOMAN = Mary

the fire of the sea → GOLD
the fir sapling of the GOLD → WOMAN = Mary

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

lifði ‘lived’

lifa (verb): live

notes

[3] meðan hafs hyr þǫll lifði ‘as long as the fir-sapling of the fire of the sea [GOLD > WOMAN = Mary] lived’: The first element of the cpd hyrþǫll (hyrr ‘fire’) is the base-word of a kenning for GOLD: hyrr ... hafs ‘fire of the sea’; this kenning for GOLD is the determinant of a kenning for WOMAN whose base-word is þǫllr ‘fir-sapling, young fir’, the second element of the cpd hyrþǫll: hafs hyrþǫll ‘fir-sapling of the sea’, ‘one who distributes gold’ [GOLD > WOMAN], the whole of this inverted kenning referring to the Virgin Mary.

Close

hugat ‘be attended to’

huga (verb): consider, mind, think

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

blíðliga ‘kindly’

blíðliga (adv.; °superl. -ast): [kindly]

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

síðan ‘thereafter’

síðan (adv.): later, then

notes

[1, 2, 4] þú lézt hag hreinnar drótningar hugat blíðliga síðan ‘you let the circumstances of the pure queen be attended to kindly thereafter’: The ms. reading ‘leitz’ could be interpreted as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb líta ‘to look’, leizt ‘looked’ or as the corresponding m.v. form ‘looked at yourself/for yourself’. Neither verb form makes sense in the passage at hand and all eds follow Bugge’s emendation to lézt (= 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. form of the verb láta ‘let’; Jón4 1874, 935). Bugge’s emendation of hugat ‘attended to’ to huggat ‘comforted’ (Jón4 1874, 935 n. 2) makes the l. too long by introducing a long plus a short syllable (= 2 syllables).

Close

hárar ‘of the high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

Close

hárar ‘of the high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

Close

hildingr ‘the warlord’

hildingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

Close

éla ‘of snowstorms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

Close

éla ‘of snowstorms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

Close

þekju ‘thatch’

1. þekja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): [thatch]

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

Close

þekju ‘thatch’

1. þekja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): [thatch]

kennings

hildingr hárar þekju éla
‘the warlord of the high thatch of snowstorms ’
   = God

the high thatch of snowstorms → SKY/HEAVEN
the warlord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5, 6, 7] hildingr hárar þekju éla ‘{the warlord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ]’: The ms. reading is ‘harar’, which could be normalised to harrar (nom. pl. of harri ‘lord’) or to harar (f. gen. sg. or f. nom./acc. pl. of the adj. hár ‘high’; r appears in mss as a grapheme for rr or for r, cf. Lindblad 1954, 73, 206-7). Here it is evidently the f. gen. sg. of hár ‘high’ and modifies the base-word (þekju ‘thatch, roof’) of the kenning for ‘heaven’ þekju éla ‘thatch of snow-storms’, which in turn is the determinant of a sannkenning for Christ: hárar hildingr ... éla þekiu ‘{(war)lord {of the high thatch of snow-storms}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = Christ].

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ǫll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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móður ‘of a mother’

móðir (noun f.): mother

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