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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Kálf Kátr 43VII

Kirsten Wolf (ed.) 2007, ‘Kálfr Hallsson, Kátrínardrápa 43’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 958-9.

Kálfr HallssonKátrínardrápa
424344

gjörðiz ‘became’

1. gera (verb): do, make

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skorðu ‘prop’

1. skorða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): prop

[1] skorðu: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘sk[...]u’ 713, ‘sk[...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

skorðu refla;
‘the prop of wallhangings; ’
   = WOMAN

the prop of wallhangings; → WOMAN

notes

[1] skorðu (f. acc. sg.) ‘prop’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj A) read 713 as ‘sk[…]a’, but the ms. seems to have a ‘u’ here.

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refla ‘of wallhangings’

refill (noun m.; °; reflar/reflir): [wallhangings]

kennings

skorðu refla;
‘the prop of wallhangings; ’
   = WOMAN

the prop of wallhangings; → WOMAN
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eflir ‘promoter’

eflir (noun m.): strengthener

kennings

eflir Hildar veðrs
‘the promoter of Hildr’s storm ’
   = WARRIOR

Hildr’s storm → BATTLE
the promoter of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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Hildar ‘Hildr’s’

2. Hildr (noun f.): Hildr

kennings

eflir Hildar veðrs
‘the promoter of Hildr’s storm ’
   = WARRIOR

Hildr’s storm → BATTLE
the promoter of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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Hildar ‘Hildr’s’

2. Hildr (noun f.): Hildr

kennings

eflir Hildar veðrs
‘the promoter of Hildr’s storm ’
   = WARRIOR

Hildr’s storm → BATTLE
the promoter of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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veðrs ‘storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

kennings

eflir Hildar veðrs
‘the promoter of Hildr’s storm ’
   = WARRIOR

Hildr’s storm → BATTLE
the promoter of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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veðrs ‘storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

kennings

eflir Hildar veðrs
‘the promoter of Hildr’s storm ’
   = WARRIOR

Hildr’s storm → BATTLE
the promoter of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

mæta ambátt gætis himna.
‘the great handmaid of the guardian of the heavens. ’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the guardian of the heavens. → God
the great handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
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himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

mæta ambátt gætis himna.
‘the great handmaid of the guardian of the heavens. ’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the guardian of the heavens. → God
the great handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
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gætis ‘of the guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

mæta ambátt gætis himna.
‘the great handmaid of the guardian of the heavens. ’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the guardian of the heavens. → God
the great handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
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gætis ‘of the guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

mæta ambátt gætis himna.
‘the great handmaid of the guardian of the heavens. ’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the guardian of the heavens. → God
the great handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
Close

ambátt ‘handmaid’

ambátt (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar (ambottor EiðKrA 391²²)): handmaid

kennings

mæta ambátt gætis himna.
‘the great handmaid of the guardian of the heavens. ’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the guardian of the heavens. → God
the great handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
Close

mæta ‘great’

mætr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): honoured, respected

kennings

mæta ambátt gætis himna.
‘the great handmaid of the guardian of the heavens. ’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the guardian of the heavens. → God
the great handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
Close

Blíðust ‘gentlest’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
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þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[5] þá björt: ‘[...]íort’ 713, björt 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...] (b)jört’ 920ˣ

notes

[5] þá: Kahle proposed the addition of this word, as the l. is one syllable too short.

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björt ‘bright’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright

[5] þá björt: ‘[...]íort’ 713, björt 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...] (b)jört’ 920ˣ

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

skærust ‘most pure’

1. skærr (adj.): pure, bright

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

blessuð ‘blessed’

blessa (verb): bless

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

dyggust ‘most faithful’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy

[6] dyggust: dygg all

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

mæt ‘great’

mætr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): honoured, respected

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

hyggin ‘intelligent’

hygginn (adj.; °comp. -ari, superl. -astr): intelligent

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

fríð ‘fair’

fríðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): beautiful, fair

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

fögr ‘beautiful’

fagr (adj.; °fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr): fair, beautiful

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

píslar ‘of martyrdom’

písl (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(Maurit 650²²)): torture < píslarprýði (noun f.)

[7] píslarprýði: ‘píslar p[...]’ 713, píslarsigri 399a‑bˣ, ‘písla sp[...]’ 920ˣ

notes

[7] píslarprýði ‘[with] the crown of martyrdom’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj A) was able to read the first two letters of the second element of this cpd in 713 as ‘pr’, but only ‘p’ is visible now.

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prýði ‘crown’

prýði (noun f.): finery, honour < píslarprýði (noun f.)

[7] píslarprýði: ‘píslar p[...]’ 713, píslarsigri 399a‑bˣ, ‘písla sp[...]’ 920ˣ

notes

[7] píslarprýði ‘[with] the crown of martyrdom’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj A) was able to read the first two letters of the second element of this cpd in 713 as ‘pr’, but only ‘p’ is visible now.

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pella ‘of velvet’

pell (noun n.; °-s; -): velvet

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

brík ‘screen’

brík (noun f.; °-ar; -r): plank

kennings

Blíðust, björt og skærust, blessuð, dyggust, mæt hyggin, fríð fögr brík pella
‘The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet ’
   = WOMAN

The gentlest, bright and most pure, blessed, most faithful, great intelligent, fair beautiful screen of velvet → WOMAN
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The poet deals succinctly with Catherine’s martyrdom in sts 43-4, while the prose text allows her a long prayer to Christ, a voice from heaven answering her prayer, and a description of her death indicating that milk flowed from her wounds in place of blood, and concluding with a passage stating that angels transported her body to a mountain þat er Syna heitir ‘which is called Sinai’, where she performs countless miracles (Unger 1877, I, 420-1; Wolf 2003, 140-1).

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