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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Jǫk Lv 1I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Jǫkull Bárðarson, Lausavísur 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 813.

Jǫkull BárðarsonLausavísur
12

Hlautk ‘I drew the lot’

hljóta (verb): alot, gain

[1] Hlautk (‘Hlꜹt ec’): hlaut er FskBˣ

notes

[1] hlautk ‘I drew the lot’: The full sense of hljóta, ‘obtain by lot’ (hence ‘get, have to’), is emphasised by Fsk which depicts Hákon’s men literally casting lots.

Close

frá ‘from’

frá (prep.): from

[1] frá: fyr 972ˣ, J2ˣ, Bb, ór 321ˣ, 73aˣ, FskBˣ, FskAˣ

Close

Sult ‘Sylte’

Sult (noun f.): [Sylte]

[1] Sult: Slygs 321ˣ, FskBˣ, FskAˣ

notes

[1] Sult ‘Sylte’: A river flowing into Tafjorden/Norddalsfjorden, Møre og Romsdal. The variant Slygs in Fsk and 321 denotes another river running into the same fjord (Finlay 2004, 157 n. 455).

Close

sæta ‘the lady’

1. sæta (noun f.; °-u; -ur): woman, lady

[1] sæta: særa 321ˣ, sóta 61

notes

[1] sæta ‘the lady’: An unidentified, and probably merely conventional, reference (cf. Frank 1990a). 

Close

síð ‘will hardly’

2. síð (adv.): late

[2] síð: ‘sidr’ 321ˣ

notes

[2] síð ‘hardly’: Lit. ‘late’: It will be late, i.e. by litotes never, when the lady hears that the speaker is daunted.

Close

fregn ‘hear’

[2] fregn: spyrr J2ˣ

Close

ek ‘I’m’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[2] ek kvíða: vér kvíðum 972ˣ, J2ˣ, vér kvíðim 73aˣ

Close

kvíða ‘daunted’

3. kvíða (verb): fear

[2] ek kvíða: vér kvíðum 972ˣ, J2ˣ, vér kvíðim 73aˣ

Close

vôn ‘a prospect of’

ván (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): hope, expectation

[3] vôn: sár 325V

Close

erumk ‘I have’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[3] erumk: ‘eraz’ 73aˣ, er um 61, FskAˣ, erum 325V, Bb, Tóm, FskBˣ, eru Flat

Close

hreggs ‘a storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

[3] hreggs: hress 321ˣ

notes

[3] hreggs ‘of a storm’: The sense ‘conflict’ may be intended here (so Hkr 1991). Hregg is common as a base-word in battle-kennings (LP: hregg), and, perhaps in parallel with hríð ‘storm, phase in a battle, battle’, could have been understood metaphorically. If so, the stanza may anticipate the trouble that ensues in Lv 2 and its context.

Close

at ‘hitting’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[3] at: á 321ˣ, 73aˣ, FskBˣ

notes

[3] at ‘hitting’: At ‘towards, against’ refers to the threat of a storm hitting the ship. The variant á ‘on’ is also possible. 

Close

hreini ‘the reindeer’

1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer

[3] hreini: hreinni Tóm, FskBˣ

kennings

hreini hlýrvangs —,
‘the reindeer of the prow-plain —, ’
   = SHIP

the prow-plain —, → SEA
the reindeer of the SEA → SHIP
Close

hlýr ‘of the prow’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow < hlýrvangr (noun m.)

[4] hlýr‑: hlýrs Holm2, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, hlý 325VII

kennings

hreini hlýrvangs —,
‘the reindeer of the prow-plain —, ’
   = SHIP

the prow-plain —, → SEA
the reindeer of the SEA → SHIP
Close

hlýr ‘of the prow’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow < hlýrvangr (noun m.)

[4] hlýr‑: hlýrs Holm2, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, hlý 325VII

kennings

hreini hlýrvangs —,
‘the reindeer of the prow-plain —, ’
   = SHIP

the prow-plain —, → SEA
the reindeer of the SEA → SHIP
Close

vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < hlýrvangr (noun m.)

[4] ‑vangs: því Holm2, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, visundi 73aˣ, ‑vágs 61, FskBˣ, ‑vægs FskAˣ

kennings

hreini hlýrvangs —,
‘the reindeer of the prow-plain —, ’
   = SHIP

the prow-plain —, → SEA
the reindeer of the SEA → SHIP
Close

vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < hlýrvangr (noun m.)

[4] ‑vangs: því Holm2, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, visundi 73aˣ, ‑vágs 61, FskBˣ, ‑vægs FskAˣ

kennings

hreini hlýrvangs —,
‘the reindeer of the prow-plain —, ’
   = SHIP

the prow-plain —, → SEA
the reindeer of the SEA → SHIP
Close

skipi ‘the ship’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

[4] skipi: at 73aˣ

Close

stýra ‘to steer’

stýra (verb): steer, control

[4] stýra: at stýra 325V

Close

ý ‘of the yew-bow’s’

ýr (noun m.): yew, yew-bow, bow < ýstétt (noun f.): [yew-bow path]

[5] ýstéttar: útstéttar 321ˣ, ‘ostrættis’ or ‘ostræitis’ 61, óstéttar 325V, FskAˣ, eystrætis 325VII, óstrætis Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

ý ‘of the yew-bow’s’

ýr (noun m.): yew, yew-bow, bow < ýstétt (noun f.): [yew-bow path]

[5] ýstéttar: útstéttar 321ˣ, ‘ostrættis’ or ‘ostræitis’ 61, óstéttar 325V, FskAˣ, eystrætis 325VII, óstrætis Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

ý ‘of the yew-bow’s’

ýr (noun m.): yew, yew-bow, bow < ýstétt (noun f.): [yew-bow path]

[5] ýstéttar: útstéttar 321ˣ, ‘ostrættis’ or ‘ostræitis’ 61, óstéttar 325V, FskAˣ, eystrætis 325VII, óstrætis Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

stéttar ‘path’

stétt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path < ýstétt (noun f.): [yew-bow path]

[5] ýstéttar: útstéttar 321ˣ, ‘ostrættis’ or ‘ostræitis’ 61, óstéttar 325V, FskAˣ, eystrætis 325VII, óstrætis Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

stéttar ‘path’

stétt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path < ýstétt (noun f.): [yew-bow path]

[5] ýstéttar: útstéttar 321ˣ, ‘ostrættis’ or ‘ostræitis’ 61, óstéttar 325V, FskAˣ, eystrætis 325VII, óstrætis Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

stéttar ‘path’

stétt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path < ýstétt (noun f.): [yew-bow path]

[5] ýstéttar: útstéttar 321ˣ, ‘ostrættis’ or ‘ostræitis’ 61, óstéttar 325V, FskAˣ, eystrætis 325VII, óstrætis Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

Ôleifr ‘that Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[6] Ôleifr: ‘aleift’ 321ˣ

notes

[6, 8] Ôleifr inn digri ‘Óláfr inn digri (“the Stout”)’: King Óláfr Haraldsson (r. c. 1015-30); see ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume.

Close

funa ‘of the flame’

funi (noun m.): fire

[6] funa: vala 61, Haka 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

funa ‘of the flame’

funi (noun m.): fire

[6] funa: vala 61, Haka 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

kleifar ‘slopes’

kleif (noun f.; °; -ar): cliff

kennings

kleifar funa ýstéttar;
‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’spath; ’
   = WOMEN

the yew-bow’spath; → ARM/HAND
the flame of the ARM/HAND → GOLD
slopes of the GOLD → WOMEN

notes

[5, 6] kleifar funa ýstéttar ‘slopes of the flame of the yew-bow’s path [ARM/HAND > GOLD > WOMEN]’: (a) The kenning in itself makes good sense, ý- referring etymologically to a bow made of yew (ýr m.), whose path is the arm or hand on which it rests. Though unexplained in the prose sources, the apparent address to women is somewhat in harmony with l. 1’s reference to the speculation of a lady (sæta), and this reading is adopted also in ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) finds a woman-kenning here unlikely and, expecting a man-kenning for which either stéttar ‘path’ or kleifar ‘slopes’ would have to be the base-word, assumes corruption. He suggests (out of several possible emendations) reading eim(s)þreytir ‘fire-destroyer’ in place of ýstéttar ‘yew-path’. Eim- ‘fire’ (partially supported by ‘ey’ in 325VII) would form a gold-kenning with the variant kleifar Haka ‘the slope of Haki <sea-king> [SEA]’ in l. 6, on the well-known pattern ‘fire of the sea/water’ = ‘gold’. This is turn yields the kenning ‘destroyer of gold [GENEROUS MAN]’, which can then be taken in apposition to nom. sg. Ôleifr (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) or as a vocative (Skj B, seemingly). (c) Kock (NN §780) accepts the emendation to -þreytir, but retains ýs to give ‘bow’s destroyer [WARRIOR]’, specified as ‘sea-warrior’ by kleifar Haka. He claims seven examples of phrases meaning ‘sea-warrior’ including this one (NN §1021).

Close

gramr ‘the king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

sjalfr ‘himself’

sjalfr (adj.): self

[7] sjalfr: snjallr Holm2, 972ˣ, 321ˣ

Close

sumri ‘summer’

sumar (noun n.; °-s; sumur/sumar): summer

[7] sumri: sunni 73aˣ

Close

ræntr ‘robbed’

ræna (verb): rob

Close

inn ‘inn’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[6, 8] Ôleifr inn digri ‘Óláfr inn digri (“the Stout”)’: King Óláfr Haraldsson (r. c. 1015-30); see ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume.

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digri ‘digri (‘the Stout’)’

digr (adj.; °digran; compar. digrari, superl. digrastr): fat, large

notes

[6, 8] Ôleifr inn digri ‘Óláfr inn digri (“the Stout”)’: King Óláfr Haraldsson (r. c. 1015-30); see ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume.

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Hákon jarl Eiríksson brings a force to Valldalr (Valldal) and seizes ships belonging to Óláfr Haraldsson. His follower Jǫkull Bárðarson gets to command the king’s ship Skeggi ‘Man’ (?) (according to Fsk), or his flagship Visundr ‘Bison’ (according to ÓH-Hkr), and exults over this in his stanza.

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