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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hókr Eirfl 8I

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2012, ‘Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 484.

Halldórr ókristniEiríksflokkr
78

hilmi ‘ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[1] hilmi: hilmis 53, hilmir 325VIII 2 g, Bb, FskBˣ

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hrings ‘of the sword’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

miklu þingi hrings;
‘the mighty assembly of the sword; ’
   = BATTLE

the mighty assembly of the sword; → BATTLE

notes

[2] hrings ‘of the sword’: On hringr as a sword-heiti, see Notes to Þhorn Harkv 1/1 and Þul Sverða 7/7III.

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at: af F, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat, á FskBˣ

notes

[2] at ‘to’: The variant af ‘from’ (so F, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat) must have been caused by the prose context, i.e. Eiríkr steering away from the battle on Ormr inn langi, rather than Óláfr arriving at Svǫlðr on that ship, or possibly by the fact that a reference to sailing into battle is unexpected at this point in the poem.

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miklu ‘the mighty’

mikill (adj.; °mikinn): great, large

kennings

miklu þingi hrings;
‘the mighty assembly of the sword; ’
   = BATTLE

the mighty assembly of the sword; → BATTLE
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þingi ‘assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly

kennings

miklu þingi hrings;
‘the mighty assembly of the sword; ’
   = BATTLE

the mighty assembly of the sword; → BATTLE
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skeiðr ‘the ships’

1. skeið (noun f.; °-ar; -r/-ar/-ir): ship

[3] skeiðr: skeið FskBˣ, FskAˣ

notes

[3] þjóðir glæstu þá skeiðr ‘troops then adorned the ships’: The sense is that the well-equipped warriors lent glory to Óláfr’s fleet. The Fsk variant, skeið (f. acc. sg.) ‘ship’, which is adopted in Skj B, Skald and ÍF 29, focuses the attention on Ormr inn langi and its crew, but it is the minority reading.

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glæstu ‘adorned’

glæsa (verb): adorn

[3] glæstu: om. Bb

notes

[3] þjóðir glæstu þá skeiðr ‘troops then adorned the ships’: The sense is that the well-equipped warriors lent glory to Óláfr’s fleet. The Fsk variant, skeið (f. acc. sg.) ‘ship’, which is adopted in Skj B, Skald and ÍF 29, focuses the attention on Ormr inn langi and its crew, but it is the minority reading.

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þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[3] þá: þar 54, 325VIII 2 g, því Bb

notes

[3] þjóðir glæstu þá skeiðr ‘troops then adorned the ships’: The sense is that the well-equipped warriors lent glory to Óláfr’s fleet. The Fsk variant, skeið (f. acc. sg.) ‘ship’, which is adopted in Skj B, Skald and ÍF 29, focuses the attention on Ormr inn langi and its crew, but it is the minority reading.

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þjóðir ‘troops’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

notes

[3] þjóðir glæstu þá skeiðr ‘troops then adorned the ships’: The sense is that the well-equipped warriors lent glory to Óláfr’s fleet. The Fsk variant, skeið (f. acc. sg.) ‘ship’, which is adopted in Skj B, Skald and ÍF 29, focuses the attention on Ormr inn langi and its crew, but it is the minority reading.

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þingat ‘’

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þangat ‘there’

þangat (adv.): there, thither

[4] þangat: þang at J1ˣ, J2ˣ, þingat FskBˣ, þengat FskAˣ

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ormrin ‘’

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Ormr ‘Ormr’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

[4] Ormr inn: orminn J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VIII 2 g, Flat, FskAˣ, ‘ormrín’ Bb, ‘ormin’ FskBˣ

notes

[4] Ormr inn langi (‘the Long Serpent’): See Note to st. 3/4 above.

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inn ‘inn’

2. inn (art.): the

[4] Ormr inn: orminn J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VIII 2 g, Flat, FskAˣ, ‘ormrín’ Bb, ‘ormin’ FskBˣ

notes

[4] Ormr inn langi (‘the Long Serpent’): See Note to st. 3/4 above.

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langi ‘langi (‘the Long Serpent’)’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

[4] langi: langa 325VIII 2 g, Bb, FskBˣ, FskAˣ

notes

[4] Ormr inn langi (‘the Long Serpent’): See Note to st. 3/4 above.

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sunnr ‘south’

sunnr (adv.): south

[5] sunnr: so 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, suðr Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, sneri Flat

notes

[5] sunnr ‘south’: So 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb. The Hkr and Fsk mss have the variant suðr ‘south’, which has been adopted in ÍF 26. It is doubtful, however, whether the conj. en ‘but’ could have been stressed strongly enough to carry the internal rhyme in this line (en : ‑unn- rather than ‑unn- : ‑unn-).

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gný ‘the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

gný Gunnar;
‘the din of Gunnr; ’
   = BATTLE

the din of Gunnr; → BATTLE
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Gunnar ‘of Gunnr’

Gunnr (noun f.): Gunnr

[5] Gunnar: gumnar FskAˣ

kennings

gný Gunnar;
‘the din of Gunnr; ’
   = BATTLE

the din of Gunnr; → BATTLE
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tók ‘received’

2. taka (verb): take

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við ‘’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[6] við: viðr FskAˣ

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Naðri ‘Naðr (‘Adder’)’

naðr (noun m.): snake

notes

[6] Naðri ‘Naðr (“Adder”)’: Another play on synonyms for ormr ‘serpent’ (see Note to st. 3/8 Fáfnis).

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varð ‘had’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[7] varð: var Bb

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ottꜹðr ‘’

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ætt ‘the high’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family < ættgóðr (adj.): high-born

[8] ættgóðr: ‘ottꜹðr’ J1ˣ, ótrauðr J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat

kennings

ættgóðr bróðir Hemings
‘the high-born brother of Hemingr ’
   = Eiríkr

the high-born brother of Hemingr → Eiríkr

notes

[8] ættgóðr ‘high-born’: The variant ótrauðr ‘not reluctant’ (J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat), which appears to have entered the ÓT redaction from a Hkr ms. of the Jöfraskinna (y) group, leaves the line with skothending (-auð- : -óð-) rather than aðalhending (-óð- : -óð-).

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góðr ‘born’

góðr (adj.): good < ættgóðr (adj.): high-born

[8] ættgóðr: ‘ottꜹðr’ J1ˣ, ótrauðr J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat

kennings

ættgóðr bróðir Hemings
‘the high-born brother of Hemingr ’
   = Eiríkr

the high-born brother of Hemingr → Eiríkr

notes

[8] ættgóðr ‘high-born’: The variant ótrauðr ‘not reluctant’ (J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat), which appears to have entered the ÓT redaction from a Hkr ms. of the Jöfraskinna (y) group, leaves the line with skothending (-auð- : -óð-) rather than aðalhending (-óð- : -óð-).

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heímngs ‘’

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Hemings ‘of Hemingr’

hemingr (noun m.): [Heming, Hemingr]

[8] Hemings: ‘heímngs’ Bb

kennings

ættgóðr bróðir Hemings
‘the high-born brother of Hemingr ’
   = Eiríkr

the high-born brother of Hemingr → Eiríkr

notes

[8] Hemings ‘of Hemingr’: Hemingr Hákonarson was Eiríkr’s half-brother and very little is known about him (see ÍF 26, 248; ÍF 29, 138).

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bróðir ‘brother’

bróðir (noun m.; °bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---): brother

kennings

ættgóðr bróðir Hemings
‘the high-born brother of Hemingr ’
   = Eiríkr

the high-born brother of Hemingr → Eiríkr
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After the battle of Svǫlðr, the victorious Eiríkr jarl takes possession of Ormr inn langi along with much booty. He commands the ship himself as he steers away from the battle (so Hkr and ÓT). Fsk relates that Eiríkr and his brother Sveinn go back to Norway, and Eiríkr takes possession of Ormr inn langi.

The stanza contrasts Óláfr arriving confidently in Ormr, and the exultant Eiríkr departing in command of it. More common in skaldic poetry is a stanza depicting two fleets approaching each other from different directions; see Note to Sigv Tryggfl 1/1-4. — In 54, 325VIII 2 g and Bb the stanza is attributed to Hallfreðr. — [1]: The line recalls Eskál Vell 33/1 hjalmfaldinn bauð hildi. — [5]: The line recalls Eskál Vell 33/3 hinns fór í gný Gunnar. — [6]: The line recalls Hfr ErfÓl 16/4 glaðr ok báða Naðra.

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