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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hharð Lv 4II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Haraldr harðráði Sigurðarson, Lausavísur 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 46-7.

Haraldr harðráði SigurðarsonLausavísur
345

According to Hkr (, 39, F, E, J2ˣ), H-Hr (H, Hr) and FskAˣ, Þjóðólfr Arnórsson completed the half-st. below (Hharð Lv 4) by composing a second helmingr (see ÞjóðA Lv 2). FskBˣ attributes the entire st. (Hharð Lv 4, ÞjóðA Lv 2) to Þjóðólfr, whereas Mork (Mork) and Flat (Flat) name Haraldr as the sole composer of both half-sts. is the main ms.

Lôtum vér, meðan lirlar
líneik veri sínum
Gerðr, í Goðnarfirði,
galdrs, akkeri halda.

Lôtum vér akkeri halda í Goðnarfirði, meðan {líneik}, {Gerðr galdrs}, lirlar veri sínum.

We shall let the anchor hold [us] in Randersfjord while {the linen-oak} [WOMAN], {the Gerðr <goddess> of incantation} [WOMAN], lulls her husband to sleep.

Mss: (541r), 39(23rb), F(45va), E(15v), J2ˣ(269r-v) (Hkr); FskBˣ(69v-70r), FskAˣ(261) (Fsk); Mork(8v) (Mork); Flat(197va) (Flat); H(44r), Hr(31vb) (H-Hr)

Readings: [1] lirlar: ‘lillar’ E, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, lítar Hr    [2] veri: ver Hr    [4] galdrs: ‘galldus’ Hr;    akkeri: akkerinn FskBˣ, FskAˣ, akkerum Mork, Flat, H, Hr;    halda: haldit Mork, Flat, H, Hr

Editions: Skj AI, 358, Skj BI, 330, Skald I, 166, NN §§846, 1854B, 3086; ÍF 28, 109 (HSig ch. 32), F 1871, 211, E 1916, 54; ÍF 29, 250-1 (ch. 55); Mork 1867, 51, Mork 1928-32, 156, Andersson and Gade 2000, 194-5, 475 (MH); Flat 1860-8, III, 335 (MH); Fms 6, 251-2 (HSig ch. 47).

Context: In the summer of 1048, Haraldr sets out with his fleet south to Jylland, Denmark. He harries far and wide and lies at anchor in Randersfjord when he composes this half-st.

Notes: [All]: The present edn follows NN §846 (so also ÍF 28; ÍF 29). Skj B reads as follows: Vér ltum akkeri halda eik í Goðnarfirði, meðan lín-Gerðr lirlar veri sínum galdr ‘We let the anchor hold the oaken ship in Randersfjord while the linen-Gerðr (woman) lulls her husband to sleep with a song’. That version requires an unprecedented tripartite division of l. 2 as well as an emendation (galdrs m. gen. sg. ‘of incantation’ (l. 4) to galdr m. dat. sg. ‘with a song’). — [All]: For this campaign, see also Grani Har 1-2, Bǫlv Hardr 8 and Anon (HSig) 1. — [1, 4] lôtum vér akkeri halda ‘we shall let the anchor hold [us]’: Lit. ‘we shall let the anchor hold’. This is synonymous with ‘ride at anchor’. The Mork (H, Hr, Flat) variant ltum vér akkerum halda (lit. ‘we shall let [it] be held by the anchors’) has the same meaning. — [2] líneik ‘the linen-oak [WOMAN]’: This could also be an apostrophe to an unknown woman (see Note to Hharð Gamv 3/1), which would obviate the repetition of the two kennings functioning as the subject of one cl. — [3, 4] Gerðr galdrs ‘the Gerðr <goddess> of incantation [WOMAN]’: This is a very unorthodox kenning for ‘woman’ (see Meissner 413-20), which could have been prompted by the verb lirla ‘lull to sleep’.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  7. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  8. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  9. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  10. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  11. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  12. E 1916 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1916. Eirspennill: AM 47 fol. Nóregs konunga sǫgur: Magnús góði – Hákon gamli. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske historiske kildeskriftskommission.
  13. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  14. Mork 1867 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1867. Morkinskinna: Pergamentsbog fra første halvdel af det trettende aarhundrede. Indeholdende en af de ældste optegnelser af norske kongesagaer. Oslo: Bentzen.
  15. Internal references
  16. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  17. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Hulda and Hrokkinskinna (H-Hr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  19. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  20. Not published: do not cite (HSigII)
  21. Not published: do not cite (MHII)
  22. Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Biography of) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 57-176.
  23. Kari Ellen Gade and Diana Whaley (eds) 2009, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísur from Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 815-16.
  24. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Bǫlverkr Arnórsson, Drápa about Haraldr harðráði 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 293.
  25. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Grani skáld, Poem about Haraldr harðráði 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 296-7.
  26. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Haraldr harðráði Sigurðarson, Lausavísur 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 46-7.
  27. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 165-6.
  28. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Haraldr harðráði Sigurðarson, Gamanvísur 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 38.
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