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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr Hákdr 4III

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2017, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Hákonardrápa 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 219.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonHákonardrápa
345

Grams ‘prince’s’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[1] Grams: gramr U

kennings

Gunnríkr rúni grams,
‘The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, ’
   = RULER

The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, → RULER
Close

rúni ‘confidant’

rúni (noun m.; °; -ar): confidant

kennings

Gunnríkr rúni grams,
‘The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, ’
   = RULER

The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, → RULER
Close

lætr ‘makes’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

notes

[1, 4] lætr … glymja of sik ‘makes … ring around him’: This could refer to the mail-shirt jangling when it is put on (so Skj B; SnE 1998, II, 290-1), or when blows are struck against it in battle (so Ohlmarks 1958, 248; Davidson 1983). Alternatively, Marold (2005a, 110-18) suggests that this phrase refers to a specific episode in the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen) also described in Tindr Hákdr 1I and 3I, when Hákon’s mail-shirt becomes so badly damaged in the course of the battle that he discards it. Especially given the other echoes of Tindr’s poem in Hfr Hákdr, this is an attractive interpretation, but as parallels can be found for all three motifs, the Translation aims to leave all possibilities open.

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glymja ‘ring’

glymja (verb): resound

notes

[1, 4] lætr … glymja of sik ‘makes … ring around him’: This could refer to the mail-shirt jangling when it is put on (so Skj B; SnE 1998, II, 290-1), or when blows are struck against it in battle (so Ohlmarks 1958, 248; Davidson 1983). Alternatively, Marold (2005a, 110-18) suggests that this phrase refers to a specific episode in the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen) also described in Tindr Hákdr 1I and 3I, when Hákon’s mail-shirt becomes so badly damaged in the course of the battle that he discards it. Especially given the other echoes of Tindr’s poem in Hfr Hákdr, this is an attractive interpretation, but as parallels can be found for all three motifs, the Translation aims to leave all possibilities open.

Close

gunn ‘The battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnríkr (adj.)

kennings

Gunnríkr rúni grams,
‘The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, ’
   = RULER

The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, → RULER
Close

ríkr ‘powerful’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich < gunnríkr (adj.)

[2] ‑ríkr: líkr U

kennings

Gunnríkr rúni grams,
‘The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, ’
   = RULER

The battle-powerful prince’s confidant, → RULER
Close

hinns ‘the one who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] hinns (‘hinn er’): sá er U

Close

Hǫgna ‘of Hǫgni’

Hǫgni (noun m.): [Hǫgni, Högni]

[3] Hǫgna: ‘havgnar’ U

kennings

váðir Hǫgna,
‘the clothes of Hǫgni, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRT

the clothes of Hǫgni, → MAIL-SHIRT
Close

heiptbráðr ‘quick to enmity’

heiftbráðr (adj.): quick-tempered

Close

of ‘around’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[4] of: und U

notes

[1, 4] lætr … glymja of sik ‘makes … ring around him’: This could refer to the mail-shirt jangling when it is put on (so Skj B; SnE 1998, II, 290-1), or when blows are struck against it in battle (so Ohlmarks 1958, 248; Davidson 1983). Alternatively, Marold (2005a, 110-18) suggests that this phrase refers to a specific episode in the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen) also described in Tindr Hákdr 1I and 3I, when Hákon’s mail-shirt becomes so badly damaged in the course of the battle that he discards it. Especially given the other echoes of Tindr’s poem in Hfr Hákdr, this is an attractive interpretation, but as parallels can be found for all three motifs, the Translation aims to leave all possibilities open.

Close

sik ‘him’

sik (pron.; °gen. sín, dat. sér): (refl. pron.)

notes

[1, 4] lætr … glymja of sik ‘makes … ring around him’: This could refer to the mail-shirt jangling when it is put on (so Skj B; SnE 1998, II, 290-1), or when blows are struck against it in battle (so Ohlmarks 1958, 248; Davidson 1983). Alternatively, Marold (2005a, 110-18) suggests that this phrase refers to a specific episode in the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen) also described in Tindr Hákdr 1I and 3I, when Hákon’s mail-shirt becomes so badly damaged in the course of the battle that he discards it. Especially given the other echoes of Tindr’s poem in Hfr Hákdr, this is an attractive interpretation, but as parallels can be found for all three motifs, the Translation aims to leave all possibilities open.

Close

váðir ‘the clothes’

váð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): clothes

kennings

váðir Hǫgna,
‘the clothes of Hǫgni, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRT

the clothes of Hǫgni, → MAIL-SHIRT
Close

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Skm cites this helmingr as the first in a set of instances of ruler-kennings, here rúni grams ‘prince’s confidant’.

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