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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr Hákdr 3III

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2017, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Hákonardrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 218.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonHákonardrápa
234

geir ‘of spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirróta (noun f.): [spear-downpour]

[1] geirrotu: ‘geir ǫtv’ W, ‘gæira tó’ corrected from ‘gæiro tó’ in scribal hand A

kennings

gǫtvar geirrotu,
‘garments of spear-downpour, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

spear-downpour, → BATTLE
garments of the BATTLE → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[1] gǫtvar geirrotu ‘garments of spear-downpour [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRTS]’: The same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 17/5V (Eg 24). The second element of the cpd could alternatively be Róta (or Rota), a valkyrie-name, so ‘spear-Róta’ (cf. geir-Skǫgul; LP: geir-Róta); ‘garments of Róta’ is then an armour-kenning. The valkyrie-name is only attested once outside kennings, in a context where Rota/Róta is portrayed acting together with the valkyrie Guðr/Gunnr, whose name means ‘battle’, in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), while rota f. ‘rainshower’ is better attested, appearing e.g. in a list of missile-heiti in Skm’s prose (SnE 1998, I, 67). The common noun -rotu ‘of downpour’ is more in keeping with the extended ‘weather’ metaphor; most previous eds, however, print -Rótu. The length of the root vowel, [o] or [o:], cannot be determined, and both forms are possible metrically. 

Close

geir ‘of spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirróta (noun f.): [spear-downpour]

[1] geirrotu: ‘geir ǫtv’ W, ‘gæira tó’ corrected from ‘gæiro tó’ in scribal hand A

kennings

gǫtvar geirrotu,
‘garments of spear-downpour, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

spear-downpour, → BATTLE
garments of the BATTLE → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[1] gǫtvar geirrotu ‘garments of spear-downpour [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRTS]’: The same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 17/5V (Eg 24). The second element of the cpd could alternatively be Róta (or Rota), a valkyrie-name, so ‘spear-Róta’ (cf. geir-Skǫgul; LP: geir-Róta); ‘garments of Róta’ is then an armour-kenning. The valkyrie-name is only attested once outside kennings, in a context where Rota/Róta is portrayed acting together with the valkyrie Guðr/Gunnr, whose name means ‘battle’, in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), while rota f. ‘rainshower’ is better attested, appearing e.g. in a list of missile-heiti in Skm’s prose (SnE 1998, I, 67). The common noun -rotu ‘of downpour’ is more in keeping with the extended ‘weather’ metaphor; most previous eds, however, print -Rótu. The length of the root vowel, [o] or [o:], cannot be determined, and both forms are possible metrically. 

Close

rotu ‘downpour’

rota (noun f.; °-u): rainstorm, roaring < geirróta (noun f.): [spear-downpour]

[1] geirrotu: ‘geir ǫtv’ W, ‘gæira tó’ corrected from ‘gæiro tó’ in scribal hand A

kennings

gǫtvar geirrotu,
‘garments of spear-downpour, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

spear-downpour, → BATTLE
garments of the BATTLE → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[1] gǫtvar geirrotu ‘garments of spear-downpour [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRTS]’: The same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 17/5V (Eg 24). The second element of the cpd could alternatively be Róta (or Rota), a valkyrie-name, so ‘spear-Róta’ (cf. geir-Skǫgul; LP: geir-Róta); ‘garments of Róta’ is then an armour-kenning. The valkyrie-name is only attested once outside kennings, in a context where Rota/Róta is portrayed acting together with the valkyrie Guðr/Gunnr, whose name means ‘battle’, in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), while rota f. ‘rainshower’ is better attested, appearing e.g. in a list of missile-heiti in Skm’s prose (SnE 1998, I, 67). The common noun -rotu ‘of downpour’ is more in keeping with the extended ‘weather’ metaphor; most previous eds, however, print -Rótu. The length of the root vowel, [o] or [o:], cannot be determined, and both forms are possible metrically. 

Close

rotu ‘downpour’

rota (noun f.; °-u): rainstorm, roaring < geirróta (noun f.): [spear-downpour]

[1] geirrotu: ‘geir ǫtv’ W, ‘gæira tó’ corrected from ‘gæiro tó’ in scribal hand A

kennings

gǫtvar geirrotu,
‘garments of spear-downpour, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

spear-downpour, → BATTLE
garments of the BATTLE → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[1] gǫtvar geirrotu ‘garments of spear-downpour [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRTS]’: The same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 17/5V (Eg 24). The second element of the cpd could alternatively be Róta (or Rota), a valkyrie-name, so ‘spear-Róta’ (cf. geir-Skǫgul; LP: geir-Róta); ‘garments of Róta’ is then an armour-kenning. The valkyrie-name is only attested once outside kennings, in a context where Rota/Róta is portrayed acting together with the valkyrie Guðr/Gunnr, whose name means ‘battle’, in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), while rota f. ‘rainshower’ is better attested, appearing e.g. in a list of missile-heiti in Skm’s prose (SnE 1998, I, 67). The common noun -rotu ‘of downpour’ is more in keeping with the extended ‘weather’ metaphor; most previous eds, however, print -Rótu. The length of the root vowel, [o] or [o:], cannot be determined, and both forms are possible metrically. 

Close

gǫtvar ‘garments’

gǫtvar (noun f.): [garments]

kennings

gǫtvar geirrotu,
‘garments of spear-downpour, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

spear-downpour, → BATTLE
garments of the BATTLE → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[1] gǫtvar geirrotu ‘garments of spear-downpour [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRTS]’: The same kenning occurs in Egill Lv 17/5V (Eg 24). The second element of the cpd could alternatively be Róta (or Rota), a valkyrie-name, so ‘spear-Róta’ (cf. geir-Skǫgul; LP: geir-Róta); ‘garments of Róta’ is then an armour-kenning. The valkyrie-name is only attested once outside kennings, in a context where Rota/Róta is portrayed acting together with the valkyrie Guðr/Gunnr, whose name means ‘battle’, in Gylf (SnE 2005, 30), while rota f. ‘rainshower’ is better attested, appearing e.g. in a list of missile-heiti in Skm’s prose (SnE 1998, I, 67). The common noun -rotu ‘of downpour’ is more in keeping with the extended ‘weather’ metaphor; most previous eds, however, print -Rótu. The length of the root vowel, [o] or [o:], cannot be determined, and both forms are possible metrically. 

Close

gagls ‘of the gosling ’

gagl (noun n.): gosling

kennings

hungreyðǫndum gagls Hanga
‘hunger-assuagers of the gosling of Hangi ’
   = WARRIORS

the gosling of Hangi → RAVEN
hunger-assuagers of the RAVEN → WARRIORS

notes

[2, 3] gagls Hanga ‘of the gosling of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN]’: Alternatively, hangi m. ‘hanged man, corpse’, and so ‘gosling of the corpse [RAVEN]’. Meissner 121 favours the former interpretation, LP: hangi the latter.

Close

gagls ‘of the gosling ’

gagl (noun n.): gosling

kennings

hungreyðǫndum gagls Hanga
‘hunger-assuagers of the gosling of Hangi ’
   = WARRIORS

the gosling of Hangi → RAVEN
hunger-assuagers of the RAVEN → WARRIORS

notes

[2, 3] gagls Hanga ‘of the gosling of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN]’: Alternatively, hangi m. ‘hanged man, corpse’, and so ‘gosling of the corpse [RAVEN]’. Meissner 121 favours the former interpretation, LP: hangi the latter.

Close

strengjar ‘of the bowstring’

strengr (noun m.; °-jar; -ir): string, rope, bow-string

[2] strengjar: strengja W

kennings

hagli strengjar.
‘the hailstone of the bowstring. ’
   = ARROW

the hailstone of the bowstring. → ARROW
Close

hagli ‘the hailstone’

hagl (noun n.; °-s; dat. *-um): hail

kennings

hagli strengjar.
‘the hailstone of the bowstring. ’
   = ARROW

the hailstone of the bowstring. → ARROW
Close

hungreyðǫndum ‘hunger-assuagers’

hungreyðandi (noun m.): [hunger-assuagers]

kennings

hungreyðǫndum gagls Hanga
‘hunger-assuagers of the gosling of Hangi ’
   = WARRIORS

the gosling of Hangi → RAVEN
hunger-assuagers of the RAVEN → WARRIORS
Close

Hanga ‘of Hangi’

Hangi (noun m.; °-a): Hangi

kennings

hungreyðǫndum gagls Hanga
‘hunger-assuagers of the gosling of Hangi ’
   = WARRIORS

the gosling of Hangi → RAVEN
hunger-assuagers of the RAVEN → WARRIORS

notes

[2, 3] gagls Hanga ‘of the gosling of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN]’: Alternatively, hangi m. ‘hanged man, corpse’, and so ‘gosling of the corpse [RAVEN]’. Meissner 121 favours the former interpretation, LP: hangi the latter.

Close

Hanga ‘of Hangi’

Hangi (noun m.; °-a): Hangi

kennings

hungreyðǫndum gagls Hanga
‘hunger-assuagers of the gosling of Hangi ’
   = WARRIORS

the gosling of Hangi → RAVEN
hunger-assuagers of the RAVEN → WARRIORS

notes

[2, 3] gagls Hanga ‘of the gosling of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN]’: Alternatively, hangi m. ‘hanged man, corpse’, and so ‘gosling of the corpse [RAVEN]’. Meissner 121 favours the former interpretation, LP: hangi the latter.

Close

hléðut ‘did not protect’

hlýja (verb): protect

[4] hléðut: ‘hlóþvt’ R, ‘hlodut’ Tˣ, ‘hlǫðvt’ W, ‘hlæðvr’ A

notes

[4] hléðut ‘did not protect’: 3rd pers. pl. pret. indic. of the verb hlýja ‘protect’, plus the negative suffix -t. The mss disagree on the stem vowel, and Noreen (ANG §513.2) describes the form with [e:] as old and rare. Emendation to hléðut, adopted by most previous eds, is supported by A’s reading ‘hlæðvr’, and Eskál Vell 34/4I has the same rhyming words, where R reads ‘hleþvt’.

Close

séðar ‘seamed’

séðr (adj./verb p.p.): [seamed, sewn]

[4] séðar: ‘sǫðar’ W

Close

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Cited in Skm as the second in a series of three instances of kennings for ‘arrows’ with hagl ‘hail’ as base-word.

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