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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 9I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 414.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
8910

letit ‘’

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Leitt ‘hateful’

2. leiðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): hateful, loathsome

[1] Leitt: so Flat, ‘Le tít’ 54, ‘Letít id’ Bb

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Leifa ‘of Leifi’

Leifi (noun m.): Leifi

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

Leifa ‘of Leifi’

Leifi (noun m.): Leifi

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

Leifa ‘of Leifi’

Leifi (noun m.): Leifi

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

brautar ‘of the road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

brautar ‘of the road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

brautar ‘of the road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

log ‘of the flame’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < lognárungr (noun m.)log (noun n.; °; -): flame < logtarningr (noun m.)log (noun n.; °; -): flame

[2] log‑: lǫg‑ Flat

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

log ‘of the flame’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < lognárungr (noun m.)log (noun n.; °; -): flame < logtarningr (noun m.)log (noun n.; °; -): flame

[2] log‑: lǫg‑ Flat

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN
Close

træningum ‘’

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nôrungum ‘to possessors’

nárungr (noun m.; °; -ar): being, possessor < lognárungr (noun m.)nárungr (noun m.; °; -ar): being, possessor < lǫgnárungr (noun m.): law?/sea?-possessor

[2] ‑nôrungum: so Flat, ‘‑tarningum’ 54, ‘‑tręníngum’ Bb

kennings

Leifa brautar lognôrungum
‘flame-possessors of the road of Leifi’
   = MEN

the road of Leifi → SEA
the flame of the SEA → GOLD
to possessors of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[2] -nôrungum ‘to possessors’: Here, as with Leitt (l. 1), only Flat’s reading makes sense. Nôrungar, a laudatory epithet only attested in the pl., has a variant form seen in gunnœringar Hávh Lv 14/6V (Háv 15), and is usually glossed ‘nourisher’ from nœra ‘to nourish’ (AEW: nárungar; LP: lognôrungar), but these are probably late developments (Meissner 350), and this ancient word seems instead to stem from the root *ner ‘strong, strength’ (Falk 1928a, 319).

Close

geirs ‘of the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

geigurþing geirs
‘the dangerous meeting of the spear ’
   = BATTLE

the dangerous meeting of the spear → BATTLE
Close

gumna ‘of men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

kennings

stjóra gumna,
‘the steerer of men, ’
   = RULER

the steerer of men, → RULER
Close

stjóra ‘the steerer’

stjóri (noun m.; °-a; -ar): steerer

[3] stjóra: stjórar Flat

kennings

stjóra gumna,
‘the steerer of men, ’
   = RULER

the steerer of men, → RULER
Close

geigur ‘the dangerous’

geigr (noun m.): fright, injury < geigrþing (noun n.): dangerous meeting

[4] geigur‑: so Flat, geigr‑ 54, Bb

kennings

geigurþing geirs
‘the dangerous meeting of the spear ’
   = BATTLE

the dangerous meeting of the spear → BATTLE
Close

þing ‘meeting’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < geigrþing (noun n.): dangerous meeting

kennings

geigurþing geirs
‘the dangerous meeting of the spear ’
   = BATTLE

the dangerous meeting of the spear → BATTLE
Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

Close

fakk ‘’

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fák ‘of the steed’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse < fákhlaðandi (noun m.)

[5] fák‑: ‘fack’ Bb, frek Flat

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

fák ‘of the steed’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse < fákhlaðandi (noun m.)

[5] fák‑: ‘fack’ Bb, frek Flat

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

hlaðendr ‘loaders’

hlaðandi (noun m.): [loaders] < fákhlaðandi (noun m.)hlaðandi (noun m.): [loaders]

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

frœknir ‘bold’

frœkn (adj.): brave, bold

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

farligs ‘of excellent’

farligr (adj.): attractive

[6] farligs: ‘farleggs’ Flat

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

farligs ‘of excellent’

farligr (adj.): attractive

[6] farligs: ‘farleggs’ Flat

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

vin ‘the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

vin jarla
‘the friend of jarls ’
   = KING

the friend of jarls → KING

notes

[6] vin jarla ‘the friend of jarls [KING]’: This could, given the context, refer to an ally of Óláfr’s adversary Eiríkr Hákonarson, jarl of Hlaðir (Lade), but it is a conventional king-kenning, and Óláfr may be meant.

Close

jarla ‘of jarls’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

kennings

vin jarla
‘the friend of jarls ’
   = KING

the friend of jarls → KING

notes

[6] vin jarla ‘the friend of jarls [KING]’: This could, given the context, refer to an ally of Óláfr’s adversary Eiríkr Hákonarson, jarl of Hlaðir (Lade), but it is a conventional king-kenning, and Óláfr may be meant.

Close

húfs ‘planking’

húfr (noun m.; °dat. -i): hull

[7] húfs: úfs Flat

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

húfs ‘planking’

húfr (noun m.; °dat. -i): hull

[7] húfs: úfs Flat

kennings

frœknir farligs húfs fákhlaðendr
‘steed-loaders of planking’
   = SEAFARERS

the steed of excellent planking → SHIP
bold loaders of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

hamri ‘with the hammer’

1. hamarr (noun m.; °-s, dat. hamri; hamrar): hammer, cliff

[7] hamri: harmi Bb

Close

þœfðar ‘beaten’

þýfðr (adj.): [ring]

[7] þœfðar: ‘hefdar’ Flat

notes

[7] þœfðar ‘beaten’: The epithet þœfðr hamri ‘beaten with the hammer’ occurs several times in later poetry (LP: þœfa 2). In Flat, ‘hefdar’ (perhaps hœfðar ‘hit, struck’, SHI 2) may represent a scribal attempt to make good the alliterative stave lost by reading úfs rather than húfs at the beginning of l. 7.

Close

hrings ‘of the ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

[8] hrings: hring Bb, Flat

kennings

skyrtur hrings,
‘shirts of the ring, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

shirts of the ring, → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[8] skyrtur hrings ‘shirts of the ring [MAIL-SHIRTS]’: (Hrings skyrtur in Text order.) Hringskyrtur ‘ring-shirts’ in Flat and Bb is equally possible, and is preferred in Skj B and Skald.

Close

skyrtur ‘shirts’

skyrta (noun f.; °-u; -ur): shirt

kennings

skyrtur hrings,
‘shirts of the ring, ’
   = MAIL-SHIRTS

shirts of the ring, → MAIL-SHIRTS

notes

[8] skyrtur hrings ‘shirts of the ring [MAIL-SHIRTS]’: (Hrings skyrtur in Text order.) Hringskyrtur ‘ring-shirts’ in Flat and Bb is equally possible, and is preferred in Skj B and Skald.

Close

framm ‘against’

(non-lexical)

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The Swedes tire of holding out against Óláfr and his men.

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