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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 5I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 408.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
456

þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

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hætti ‘there was danger’

2. hætta (verb): risk

notes

[1] hætti ‘there was danger’: More literally, ‘[it] was risked’. 

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hundmargr ‘An immense’

hundmargr (adj.): immense

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dręsil ‘’

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drasil ‘the horse’

drasill (noun m.): steed

[2] drasil: ‘dręsil‑’ Bb, drasils 53, Flat

kennings

drasil sunda,
‘the horse of sounds, ’
   = SHIP

the horse of sounds, → SHIP

notes

[2] drasil sunda ‘the horse of sounds [SHIP]’: This is taken here as the object of sótti ‘attacked’. The reading drasils in 53 and Flat could be retained by assuming herr drasils sunda ‘force of the horse of sounds [SHIP]’ and taking sótti ‘attacked’ as intransitive.

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sunda ‘of sounds’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

kennings

drasil sunda,
‘the horse of sounds, ’
   = SHIP

the horse of sounds, → SHIP

notes

[2] drasil sunda ‘the horse of sounds [SHIP]’: This is taken here as the object of sótti ‘attacked’. The reading drasils in 53 and Flat could be retained by assuming herr drasils sunda ‘force of the horse of sounds [SHIP]’ and taking sótti ‘attacked’ as intransitive.

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sprotum ‘rods’

sproti (noun m.; °-a): [rods] < hjalmsproti (noun m.)

[3] ‑sprotum: so 53, Flat, ‑spjótum 54, Bb

kennings

hjalmsprotum.
‘with helmet-rods. ’
   = SWORDS

with helmet-rods. → SWORDS
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varði ‘warded off’

3. verja (verb): defend

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Fellu ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[5] þar: þeir 53, Flat

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þolli ‘fir’

þollr (noun m.): fir-tree

kennings

þeim þolli Skævaðar geima;
‘that fir of the Skævaðr of the ocean; ’
   = SEAFARER

the Skævaðr of the ocean; → SHIP
that fir of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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þeim ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

þeim þolli Skævaðar geima;
‘that fir of the Skævaðr of the ocean; ’
   = SEAFARER

the Skævaðr of the ocean; → SHIP
that fir of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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Skævaðar ‘of the Skævaðr’

Skævaðr (noun m.): Skævaðr

kennings

þeim þolli Skævaðar geima;
‘that fir of the Skævaðr of the ocean; ’
   = SEAFARER

the Skævaðr of the ocean; → SHIP
that fir of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[6] Skævaðar ‘of the Skævaðr <legendary horse>’: Cf. LP: Skævaðr and SnE 1998, I, 88-9 for further instances. The meaning may be ‘racer’ (AEW: skæva); LP takes it as ‘high-stepping’. See also Notes to Anon Kálfv 1/7-8III, Anon Þorgþ I 2/2III .

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Skævaðar ‘of the Skævaðr’

Skævaðr (noun m.): Skævaðr

kennings

þeim þolli Skævaðar geima;
‘that fir of the Skævaðr of the ocean; ’
   = SEAFARER

the Skævaðr of the ocean; → SHIP
that fir of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[6] Skævaðar ‘of the Skævaðr <legendary horse>’: Cf. LP: Skævaðr and SnE 1998, I, 88-9 for further instances. The meaning may be ‘racer’ (AEW: skæva); LP takes it as ‘high-stepping’. See also Notes to Anon Kálfv 1/7-8III, Anon Þorgþ I 2/2III .

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geima ‘of the ocean’

geimi (noun m.): ocean

[6] geima: so 53, Flat, geyma 54, Bb

kennings

þeim þolli Skævaðar geima;
‘that fir of the Skævaðr of the ocean; ’
   = SEAFARER

the Skævaðr of the ocean; → SHIP
that fir of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[6] geima ‘of the ocean’: Geyma, the reading of 54 and Bb, could be either the inf. of the verb meaning ‘to take care of’ or acc./gen. pl. of geymir ‘keeper’, but it spoils the hending and, judging by the 54 scribe’s practice elsewhere, cannot be normalised to geima.

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geima ‘of the ocean’

geimi (noun m.): ocean

[6] geima: so 53, Flat, geyma 54, Bb

kennings

þeim þolli Skævaðar geima;
‘that fir of the Skævaðr of the ocean; ’
   = SEAFARER

the Skævaðr of the ocean; → SHIP
that fir of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[6] geima ‘of the ocean’: Geyma, the reading of 54 and Bb, could be either the inf. of the verb meaning ‘to take care of’ or acc./gen. pl. of geymir ‘keeper’, but it spoils the hending and, judging by the 54 scribe’s practice elsewhere, cannot be normalised to geima.

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mein ‘grief’

mein (noun n.; °-s; -): harm, injury

notes

[7] hlautk mein ‘I got grief’: Hlutu ‘they got’ in 53 and Flat may be an error influenced by the following pl. mínir ‘my’; it would only be possible if fleiri ‘more’ was taken as its subject, since the hollvinir ‘true friends’ cannot be both dead (fellu ‘fell’, l. 1) and grieving.

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hlautk ‘I got’

hljóta (verb): alot, gain

[7] hlautk (‘hlaut ek’): hlutu 53, Flat

notes

[7] hlautk mein ‘I got grief’: Hlutu ‘they got’ in 53 and Flat may be an error influenced by the following pl. mínir ‘my’; it would only be possible if fleiri ‘more’ was taken as its subject, since the hollvinir ‘true friends’ cannot be both dead (fellu ‘fell’, l. 1) and grieving.

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

[7] af: om. Bb

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meir ‘also’

meir (adv.): further, again

notes

[8] meir ‘also’: The word is taken here as an adv. and construed with the main clause (so also Kock in NN §474, translating it as sedan ‘afterwards’, rather than ‘also’); cf. Eskál Vell 21/1. Finnur Jónsson construes it with the intercalary, either as an adv. (LP: mjǫk) or an adj. (Skj B, translating meir mein as stor sorg ‘great sorrow’).

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Although the Danish king Sveinn tjúguskegg ‘Fork-beard’, with his sixty ships, attacks the Norwegians the hardest, the entire fleet of the Danes and Swedes is within shooting range. But Óláfr and his troop defend themselves splendidly, even though many of his men fall.

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