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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 22I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 432.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
212223

segir ‘tells’

segja (verb): say, tell

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

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auðar ‘of riches’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth

[1] auðar: aldar 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, auðar auðar Flat

kennings

kenni auðar
‘the master of riches ’
   = MAN

the master of riches → MAN

notes

[1] kenni auðar ‘the master of riches [MAN]’: Probably the skald himself, cf. auðhnykkjanda ‘wealth-strewer’ Hfr Lv 18/6V (Hallfr 21). The kenning could alternatively refer to Óláfr, but this entails a complex syntactic arrangement (suggested as an alternative in Hkr 1991). Fsk’s reading kennir (nom.) could be taken as an apostrophe to an unknown person, unusual in an encomium, or as an attempt to supply a subject immediately after the verb segir ‘tells’.

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kenni ‘the master’

kennir (noun m.): teacher

[1] kenni: so Kˣ, 22ˣmarg, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat, kennir FskAˣ

kennings

kenni auðar
‘the master of riches ’
   = MAN

the master of riches → MAN

notes

[1] kenni auðar ‘the master of riches [MAN]’: Probably the skald himself, cf. auðhnykkjanda ‘wealth-strewer’ Hfr Lv 18/6V (Hallfr 21). The kenning could alternatively refer to Óláfr, but this entails a complex syntactic arrangement (suggested as an alternative in Hkr 1991). Fsk’s reading kennir (nom.) could be taken as an apostrophe to an unknown person, unusual in an encomium, or as an attempt to supply a subject immediately after the verb segir ‘tells’.

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[2] ór: í Kˣ, 22ˣmarg, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ

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malma ‘of metal weapons’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

kennings

gnaustan malma.
‘the clashing of metal weapons. ’
   = BATTLE

the clashing of metal weapons. → BATTLE
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gnaustan ‘the clashing’

gnaustan (noun f.): [clashing]

kennings

gnaustan malma.
‘the clashing of metal weapons. ’
   = BATTLE

the clashing of metal weapons. → BATTLE
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frá ‘that’

frá (prep.): from

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

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sôrum ‘was wounded’

sárr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): sore, painful; wounded

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

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tyggja ‘the ruler’

tyggi (noun m.): prince, sovereign

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

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eða ‘or’

eða (conj.): or

[4] eða braut of kumnum: at braut hafi komisk Flat

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

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braut ‘’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away

[4] eða braut of kumnum: at braut hafi komisk Flat

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

Close

of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[4] eða braut of kumnum: at braut hafi komisk Flat;    of: ór 22ˣmarg

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

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kumnum ‘escaped’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

[4] eða braut of kumnum: at braut hafi komisk Flat;    kumnum: komin 22ˣmarg, komna 61

notes

[1, 3, 4] segir ... frá tyggja sôrum eða braut of kumnum ‘tells ... that the ruler was wounded or escaped’: Lit. ‘tells about the ruler [having been] wounded or [having] got away’.

Close

‘Now’

nú (adv.): now

[5] s (‘nu er’): nú hefk 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb

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s ‘’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[5] s (‘nu er’): nú hefk 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb

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sunnan ‘out of the south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

[5] sunnan: síðan Flat

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[6] ór: í 22ˣmarg, J1ˣ, J2ˣ

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kannka ‘I do not care’

3. kanna (verb): know, be able

[7] kannka (‘kann ec ei’): kann eigi J1ˣ, kann ek 61, kanna ek ei Flat

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við ‘for’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[7] við: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat, at FskAˣ, Kˣ, 22ˣmarg

notes

[7] við ‘for’: The main ms. reading at is difficult to incorporate into the syntax, whereas there is some support for kunna (við) + dat. ‘to care for’ (well attested in ModIcel.; see also Fritzner: kunna 7; CVC: kunna IV. 3); in LP: kunna 1, this phrase is explained differently.

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veifanar ‘vacillating’

veifan (noun f.): [vacillating]

[8] veifanarorði: ‘uæipanar ordum’ Flat

notes

[8] veifanarorði ‘vacillating words’: Veifan is a hap. leg. from verb veifa ‘to wave, vibrate’. Orði is grammatically dat. sg., ‘word’.

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orði ‘words’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

[8] veifanarorði: ‘uæipanar ordum’ Flat

notes

[8] veifanarorði ‘vacillating words’: Veifan is a hap. leg. from verb veifa ‘to wave, vibrate’. Orði is grammatically dat. sg., ‘word’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Follows st. 21 with minimal introduction in most prose texts; ÓT briefly paraphrases the stanza, highlighting the contradictory reports. 

[1-4]: The tradition seems to have been that Óláfr travelled east after escaping Svǫlðr, via Wendland to Russia, Greece, Syria and/or Jerusalem (ÓTOdd 1932, 241-3, 259-60; ÍF 25, 358, 373) or simply to the Holy Land (Ágr, ÍF 29, 24). Austr ‘eastwards’ (l. 2) is here taken with braut of kumnum ‘escaped, got away’, which supports the claims in the prose sources (or may be the origin of them). It could alternatively mean ‘in the east’ and combine with gnaustan malma ‘the clashing of metal weapons [BATTLE]’ in the same line. 

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