skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Hfr ErfÓl 16I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 16’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 422.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
151617

ógnrœðir ‘’

ógnrœðir (noun m.)

Close

ulfgœðir ‘’

ulfgœðir (noun m.)

Close

ógnrœðir ‘’

ógnrœðir (noun m.)

Close

Ógrœðir ‘The non-increaser’

ógrœðir (noun m.): [non-increaser]

[1] Ógrœðir: ‘Ogn røðir’ Holm18, ulfgœðir 310, ‘Ogn rædir’ Flat

kennings

Ógrœðir armgrjóts
‘The non-increaser of arm-gravel ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

arm-gravel → JEWELS
The non-increaser of JEWELS → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[1] ógrœðir ‘the non-increaser’: One who does not increase (his own stock of) jewels because he gives them away, i.e. a generous man. Neither of the minor ms. readings, ulfgœðir m. ‘wolf-enricher’ (the warrior, who provides him with corpses) or, by emendation, ógnreiðir m. ‘battle-swinger’ or perhaps ‘terrifying swinger’, combines convincingly with armgrjóts ‘of arm-gravel [JEWELS]’.

Close

auða ‘empty’

3. auðr (adj.): empty, barren

[1] auða: auðan 4‑7

Close

arm ‘of arm’

1. armr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): arm < armgrjót (noun n.)1. armr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): arm

[2] arm‑: arin‑ 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Ógrœðir armgrjóts
‘The non-increaser of arm-gravel ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

arm-gravel → JEWELS
The non-increaser of JEWELS → GENEROUS MAN
Close

arm ‘of arm’

1. armr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): arm < armgrjót (noun n.)1. armr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): arm

[2] arm‑: arin‑ 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Ógrœðir armgrjóts
‘The non-increaser of arm-gravel ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

arm-gravel → JEWELS
The non-increaser of JEWELS → GENEROUS MAN
Close

grjózt ‘’

Close

grjóts ‘gravel’

grjót (noun n.): rock, stone < armgrjót (noun n.)grjót (noun n.): rock, stone < aringrjót (noun n.): hearth?/eagle?-stone

[2] ‑grjóts: ‘griozt’ J1ˣ

kennings

Ógrœðir armgrjóts
‘The non-increaser of arm-gravel ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

arm-gravel → JEWELS
The non-increaser of JEWELS → GENEROUS MAN
Close

grjóts ‘gravel’

grjót (noun n.): rock, stone < armgrjót (noun n.)grjót (noun n.): rock, stone < aringrjót (noun n.): hearth?/eagle?-stone

[2] ‑grjóts: ‘griozt’ J1ˣ

kennings

Ógrœðir armgrjóts
‘The non-increaser of arm-gravel ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

arm-gravel → JEWELS
The non-increaser of JEWELS → GENEROUS MAN
Close

Trana ‘Trani (‘Crane’)’

2. trani (noun m.; °-a): crane

[2] Trana: Trana so 4‑7, Trǫnu FskAˣ, Holm18, 310, 4‑7, Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Flat, ‘trꜹnnv’ Bb

notes

[2] Trana ‘Trani (“Crane”)’: The name of one of Óláfr’s ships. The m. (Trani) and f. (Trana) forms are used indiscriminately in the prose sources (the ÓTOdd mss disagree). The f. form has the strongest ms. support here and is found, e.g., in Hamð 17, but these f. forms may be scribal, and the m. form is preferred in this edn (as in Skj B), since it is older (CVC: Trani), and indeed m. names of ships prevail up to the C12th (see Note to Rv Lv 8/4II).

Close

fljóta ‘floating’

fljóta (verb): flow, float

Close

rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

Close

geir ‘the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear

Close

Naðra ‘Naðrar (‘Adders’)’

naðr (noun m.): snake

Close

áðr ‘before’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

[5] áðr: so Holm18, 310, 4‑7, Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, Flat, áðr en FskAˣ

Close

hjaldr ‘clash’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrþorinn (adj.)

[5] hjaldr‑: so Holm18, 310, 4‑7, Kˣ, F, 61, 53, 54, Bb, Flat, added above the line FskAˣ, hjald J1ˣ, J2ˣ

Close

hꜹg ‘’

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[6] í: so 4‑7, Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Flat, ‘æ’ FskAˣ, ok Holm18, 53, í corrected to ór in the margin 310, ór 61, 54, Bb

notes

[6] í ‘in’: Ór ‘from’, the reading of most ÓT mss (and added in the margin to 310) is also possible. The phrase it introduces, ramri bǫð ‘fierce battle’, is then a description of what Þorkell heldi undan ‘fled’ from. Ok in 53 and Holm18 (represented by Tironian nota in both cases) are presumably misreadings of their exemplar’s <j> (normalised í) (so Ólafur Halldórsson, ÍF 25).

Close

bǫð ‘battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle

[6] bǫð: beið 22ˣmarg

Close

snotr ‘wise’

snotr (adj.): wise

Close

á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[7] á: af Kˣ, 22ˣmarg, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ

Close

snǫris ‘’

Close

snœri ‘the cable’

snœri (noun n.; °; -): cable, thong < snœrivitnir (noun m.)snœri (noun n.; °; -): cable, thong < snœriotr (noun m.): cable-ottersnœri (noun n.; °; -): cable, thong < 1. snœrivitra (noun f.): ?cable-wisdom

[7] snœri‑: siglu 310, ‘snǫris’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, snœris 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

snœrivitni sunds.
‘the cable-wolf of the sea. ’
   = SHIP

the cable-wolf of the sea. → SHIP

notes

[7] snœrivitni ‘the cable-wolf’: The variant readings otr siglu ‘otter of the mast’ (so 310) and snœriotr ‘cable-otter’ (so Holm18 and Flat, whose text of this stanza is from ÓTOdd rather than ÓT (ÍF 25)), also form ship-kennings, though they give aðalhending in an odd line. Vitru (f. acc. sg.) ‘wisdom’ and fjǫtri (m. dat. sg.) ‘fetter’ are likely to be scribal errors for vitni and [snœris]otri (with a long second <s>) respectively.

Close

vitni ‘wolf’

vitnir (noun m.): wolf < snœrivitnir (noun m.)vitnir (noun m.): wolf < snœrivitnir (noun m.)

[7] ‑vitni: otri Holm18, 310, Flat, vitru 4‑7, fjǫtri 53

kennings

snœrivitni sunds.
‘the cable-wolf of the sea. ’
   = SHIP

the cable-wolf of the sea. → SHIP

notes

[7] snœrivitni ‘the cable-wolf’: The variant readings otr siglu ‘otter of the mast’ (so 310) and snœriotr ‘cable-otter’ (so Holm18 and Flat, whose text of this stanza is from ÓTOdd rather than ÓT (ÍF 25)), also form ship-kennings, though they give aðalhending in an odd line. Vitru (f. acc. sg.) ‘wisdom’ and fjǫtri (m. dat. sg.) ‘fetter’ are likely to be scribal errors for vitni and [snœris]otri (with a long second <s>) respectively.

Close

sunds ‘of the sea’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

kennings

snœrivitni sunds.
‘the cable-wolf of the sea. ’
   = SHIP

the cable-wolf of the sea. → SHIP

notes

[7] snœrivitni ‘the cable-wolf’: The variant readings otr siglu ‘otter of the mast’ (so 310) and snœriotr ‘cable-otter’ (so Holm18 and Flat, whose text of this stanza is from ÓTOdd rather than ÓT (ÍF 25)), also form ship-kennings, though they give aðalhending in an odd line. Vitru (f. acc. sg.) ‘wisdom’ and fjǫtri (m. dat. sg.) ‘fetter’ are likely to be scribal errors for vitni and [snœris]otri (with a long second <s>) respectively. — [8] sunds ‘of the sea’: It is not obvious where this gen. noun fits in the syntax. (a) In the Text above, sunds forms an overloaded ship-kenning with snœrivitni, ‘(on the) cable-wolf of the sea’. Parallels, albeit somewhat distant ones, are assembled at Meissner 42. (b) Following Ólafur Halldórsson (ÍF 25), sunds could be taken as an adverbial gen. of direction (cf. NS §141); a possible parallel is Gsind Hákdr 6/8 sunda, if this is adverbial ‘through sounds’ (so Poole 2004). (c) Sunds could mean ‘swimming’. Hkr seems to take this as a reference to Þorkell’s means of escape; cf. Hkr’s reading af in l. 7, suggesting Þorkell flees from, rather than on, the ship (ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; cf. ÍF 29), while Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 3) suggested snotr sunds ‘wise (i.e. skilled) at swimming’ (see Hkr 1893-1901, IV for Finnur Jónsson’s response).

Close

sunds ‘of the sea’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

kennings

snœrivitni sunds.
‘the cable-wolf of the sea. ’
   = SHIP

the cable-wolf of the sea. → SHIP

notes

[7] snœrivitni ‘the cable-wolf’: The variant readings otr siglu ‘otter of the mast’ (so 310) and snœriotr ‘cable-otter’ (so Holm18 and Flat, whose text of this stanza is from ÓTOdd rather than ÓT (ÍF 25)), also form ship-kennings, though they give aðalhending in an odd line. Vitru (f. acc. sg.) ‘wisdom’ and fjǫtri (m. dat. sg.) ‘fetter’ are likely to be scribal errors for vitni and [snœris]otri (with a long second <s>) respectively. — [8] sunds ‘of the sea’: It is not obvious where this gen. noun fits in the syntax. (a) In the Text above, sunds forms an overloaded ship-kenning with snœrivitni, ‘(on the) cable-wolf of the sea’. Parallels, albeit somewhat distant ones, are assembled at Meissner 42. (b) Following Ólafur Halldórsson (ÍF 25), sunds could be taken as an adverbial gen. of direction (cf. NS §141); a possible parallel is Gsind Hákdr 6/8 sunda, if this is adverbial ‘through sounds’ (so Poole 2004). (c) Sunds could mean ‘swimming’. Hkr seems to take this as a reference to Þorkell’s means of escape; cf. Hkr’s reading af in l. 7, suggesting Þorkell flees from, rather than on, the ship (ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; cf. ÍF 29), while Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 3) suggested snotr sunds ‘wise (i.e. skilled) at swimming’ (see Hkr 1893-1901, IV for Finnur Jónsson’s response).

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The battle has turned against Óláfr’s forces, and a certain Þorkell escapes: either Þorkell nefja ‘Nose’, Óláfr’s half-brother (Hkr, Fsk, ÓT) or Þorkell dyrðill ‘Cloak’, a prominent man in Óláfr’s retinue (ÓTOdd). ÓTOdd specifies that Óláfr commanded Þorkell to take the wounded and dead ashore on Trana/Trani; Hkr and ÓT say that he was the last to flee.

Ms. 22ˣ is a secondary ms. of ÓT, but at this point it has marginalia apparently copied from a now lost leaf of the Hkr ms. 39 (Ólafur Halldórsson 1976; ÓT 1958-2000, III, ccx). Variants from this are cited where available, here and in sts 18, 20-2, with the siglum 22ˣmarg.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.