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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 15I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 421.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
141516

Gótt ‘good’

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góðr (adj.): good

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gǫrva ‘searchingly’

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gǫrva (adv.): fully

[1] gǫrva at: corrected from at gǫrva in a later hand 53

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at ‘to’

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5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[1] gǫrva at: corrected from at gǫrva in a later hand 53

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frétta ‘ask’

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frétta (verb): ask, enquire

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gunn ‘’

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gunnr (noun f.): battle

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gunnr ‘battle’

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gunnr (noun f.): battle

[2] gunnr: gunn 53, 54, Bb, Flat

notes

[2] gunnr ‘battle’: So only 61. The majority reading gunn is difficult to explain, as none of the inflectional forms of gunnr f. lack an ending.

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óx ‘swelled’

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vaxa (verb): grow, increase

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haf ‘of the sea’

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haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea

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sunnan ‘south’

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sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

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sverð ‘swords’

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sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

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fyrða ‘men’

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2. fyrðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): man

[3] fyrða: so 53, 54, Bb, Flat, added above the line 61

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fjǫr ‘life’

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fjǫr (noun n.): life < fjǫrrann (noun n.)fjǫr (noun n.): life < fjǫrrunnr (noun m.): bush, tree

kennings

fjǫrrǫnn
‘life-halls ’
   = BREASTS

life-halls → BREASTS
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rǫnn ‘halls’

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rann (noun n.): house, hall < fjǫrrann (noun n.)

[4] ‑rǫnn: runn Flat

kennings

fjǫrrǫnn
‘life-halls ’
   = BREASTS

life-halls → BREASTS
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at ‘about’

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3. at (prep.): at, to

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mǫnnum ‘for people’

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maðr (noun m.): man, person

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hvern ‘which’

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2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

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rekkligast ‘’

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rakkligast ‘most bravely’

[5] rakkligast: ‘reckligazst’ Bb

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rekka ‘of the champions’

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rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

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rand ‘of the rim’

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rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randláð (noun n.)

[6] randláðs viðir kvôðu: om. Flat;    rand‑: vand‑ Bb

kennings

viðir randláðs
‘trees of the rim-land ’
   = WARRIORS

the rim-land → SHIELD
trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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rand ‘of the rim’

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rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randláð (noun n.)

[6] randláðs viðir kvôðu: om. Flat;    rand‑: vand‑ Bb

kennings

viðir randláðs
‘trees of the rim-land ’
   = WARRIORS

the rim-land → SHIELD
trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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láðs ‘land’

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2. láð (noun n.): earth, land < randláð (noun n.)2. láð (noun n.): earth, land < vandláð (noun n.): wand-land

[6] randláðs viðir kvôðu: om. Flat

kennings

viðir randláðs
‘trees of the rim-land ’
   = WARRIORS

the rim-land → SHIELD
trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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láðs ‘land’

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2. láð (noun n.): earth, land < randláð (noun n.)2. láð (noun n.): earth, land < vandláð (noun n.): wand-land

[6] randláðs viðir kvôðu: om. Flat

kennings

viðir randláðs
‘trees of the rim-land ’
   = WARRIORS

the rim-land → SHIELD
trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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viðir ‘trees’

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1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

[6] randláðs viðir kvôðu: om. Flat

kennings

viðir randláðs
‘trees of the rim-land ’
   = WARRIORS

the rim-land → SHIELD
trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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kvôðu ‘say’

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2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[6] randláðs viðir kvôðu: om. Flat

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Surts ‘of Surtr’

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Surtr (noun m.): Surtr

[7] Surts ættar vinnk: satt mun ítr um Flat

kennings

sylg ættar Surts.
‘drink of the family of Surtr.’
   = POETRY

the family of Surtr. → GIANTS
drink of GIANTS → POETRY

notes

[7-8] sylg ættar Surts ‘drink of the family of Surtr <giant> [GIANTS > POETRY]’: The giant Gillingr and his family are prominent in the complex myth of the mead of poetry, and the mead is in the possession of Gillingr’s son Suttungr until gained by Óðinn (see SnE 1998, I, 3-5, and on the myth see Introduction to SkP III). The fire-giant Surtr seems to be used merely as a representative giant here, so that his ætt are giants, though for a suggestion that Surtr himself figured in the myth of the mead of poetry, see Note to Eyv Hál 1/7.

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Surts ‘of Surtr’

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Surtr (noun m.): Surtr

[7] Surts ættar vinnk: satt mun ítr um Flat

kennings

sylg ættar Surts.
‘drink of the family of Surtr.’
   = POETRY

the family of Surtr. → GIANTS
drink of GIANTS → POETRY

notes

[7-8] sylg ættar Surts ‘drink of the family of Surtr <giant> [GIANTS > POETRY]’: The giant Gillingr and his family are prominent in the complex myth of the mead of poetry, and the mead is in the possession of Gillingr’s son Suttungr until gained by Óðinn (see SnE 1998, I, 3-5, and on the myth see Introduction to SkP III). The fire-giant Surtr seems to be used merely as a representative giant here, so that his ætt are giants, though for a suggestion that Surtr himself figured in the myth of the mead of poetry, see Note to Eyv Hál 1/7.

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mun ‘’

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munu (verb): will, must

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ættar ‘of the family’

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1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family

[7] Surts ættar vinnk: satt mun ítr um Flat

kennings

sylg ættar Surts.
‘drink of the family of Surtr.’
   = POETRY

the family of Surtr. → GIANTS
drink of GIANTS → POETRY

notes

[7-8] sylg ættar Surts ‘drink of the family of Surtr <giant> [GIANTS > POETRY]’: The giant Gillingr and his family are prominent in the complex myth of the mead of poetry, and the mead is in the possession of Gillingr’s son Suttungr until gained by Óðinn (see SnE 1998, I, 3-5, and on the myth see Introduction to SkP III). The fire-giant Surtr seems to be used merely as a representative giant here, so that his ætt are giants, though for a suggestion that Surtr himself figured in the myth of the mead of poetry, see Note to Eyv Hál 1/7.

Close

ættar ‘of the family’

(not checked:)
1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family

[7] Surts ættar vinnk: satt mun ítr um Flat

kennings

sylg ættar Surts.
‘drink of the family of Surtr.’
   = POETRY

the family of Surtr. → GIANTS
drink of GIANTS → POETRY

notes

[7-8] sylg ættar Surts ‘drink of the family of Surtr <giant> [GIANTS > POETRY]’: The giant Gillingr and his family are prominent in the complex myth of the mead of poetry, and the mead is in the possession of Gillingr’s son Suttungr until gained by Óðinn (see SnE 1998, I, 3-5, and on the myth see Introduction to SkP III). The fire-giant Surtr seems to be used merely as a representative giant here, so that his ætt are giants, though for a suggestion that Surtr himself figured in the myth of the mead of poetry, see Note to Eyv Hál 1/7.

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mun ‘’

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munu (verb): will, must

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ítr ‘’

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ítr (adj.): glorious

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vinn ‘make’

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2. vinna (verb): perform, work

[7] Surts ættar vinnk: satt mun ítr um Flat;    vinnk (‘vinn ek’): mun ek 54, Bb

notes

[7] sléttan ‘smooth’: Sléttan, m. acc. sg. agreeing with the poetry-kenning based on sylg ‘drink’, is here taken as the adj. used attributively. It could otherwise be taken as predicative, hence ‘make (the poetry) smooth’, or else as the p. p. of slétta ‘to smoothe’, cf. slétta óð ‘smoothe a poem’, ESk Geisl 50/3VII. This is the earliest surviving example in the skaldic corpus of sléttr ‘smooth, smoothed’ applied to poetry, a very common metaphor in C12th and later, especially Christian, poetry.

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um ‘’

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2. um (particle): (particle)

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k ‘I’

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ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[7] Surts ættar vinnk: satt mun ítr um Flat;    vinnk (‘vinn ek’): mun ek 54, Bb

notes

[7] sléttan ‘smooth’: Sléttan, m. acc. sg. agreeing with the poetry-kenning based on sylg ‘drink’, is here taken as the adj. used attributively. It could otherwise be taken as predicative, hence ‘make (the poetry) smooth’, or else as the p. p. of slétta ‘to smoothe’, cf. slétta óð ‘smoothe a poem’, ESk Geisl 50/3VII. This is the earliest surviving example in the skaldic corpus of sléttr ‘smooth, smoothed’ applied to poetry, a very common metaphor in C12th and later, especially Christian, poetry.

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sleittar ‘’

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sléttar ‘’

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sléttr (adj.): level, smooth

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sléttan ‘the smooth’

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sléttr (adj.): level, smooth

[7] sléttan: sléttar 54, ‘sleittar’ Bb

notes

[7] sléttan ‘smooth’: Sléttan, m. acc. sg. agreeing with the poetry-kenning based on sylg ‘drink’, is here taken as the adj. used attributively. It could otherwise be taken as predicative, hence ‘make (the poetry) smooth’, or else as the p. p. of slétta ‘to smoothe’, cf. slétta óð ‘smoothe a poem’, ESk Geisl 50/3VII. This is the earliest surviving example in the skaldic corpus of sléttr ‘smooth, smoothed’ applied to poetry, a very common metaphor in C12th and later, especially Christian, poetry.

Close

sylg ‘drink’

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sylgr (noun m.; °dat. -): drink, draught

kennings

sylg ættar Surts.
‘drink of the family of Surtr.’
   = POETRY

the family of Surtr. → GIANTS
drink of GIANTS → POETRY

notes

[7-8] sylg ættar Surts ‘drink of the family of Surtr <giant> [GIANTS > POETRY]’: The giant Gillingr and his family are prominent in the complex myth of the mead of poetry, and the mead is in the possession of Gillingr’s son Suttungr until gained by Óðinn (see SnE 1998, I, 3-5, and on the myth see Introduction to SkP III). The fire-giant Surtr seems to be used merely as a representative giant here, so that his ætt are giants, though for a suggestion that Surtr himself figured in the myth of the mead of poetry, see Note to Eyv Hál 1/7.

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Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’

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Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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fylgja ‘supported’

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2. fylgja (verb): follow, accompany

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After describing the battle of Svǫlðr, ÓT reports the different accounts of its last moments, and observes that the bravery of Óláfr’s men will be long remembered. Hallfreðr’s stanza is introduced as a witness that Þorkell nefja ‘Nose’ gave outstanding support to his brother Óláfr.

[1]: The final a of gǫrva and initial a of at must be elided to make the line regular (Gade 1995a, 66), and so es cannot be cliticised to yield Gótts (cf. Note to st. 12/7 ek). The line resembles st. 18/7: hætts til hans at frétta ‘it’s risky to enquire about him’, i.e. about Óláfr’s fate.

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