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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hár Lv 2I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hárekr í Þjóttu, Lausavísur 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 810.

Hárekr í ÞjóttuLausavísur
12

Lætka ‘I will not let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] Lætka (‘Lætca ec’): ‘Leccað ec’ Holm2, ‘Leckat ek’ 73aˣ, Flat, ‘Lettkat’ Holm4, ‘Lackan’ 61, ‘Letað ek’ 75c, ‘Letkat’ 325V, leitað ek Bb, lækkat DG8

Close

Lundar ‘of Lund’

Lundr (noun f.): [Lund]

[1] Lundar: ‘þíndar’ Tóm

Close

ekkjur ‘the widows’

1. ekkja (noun f.; °-u; -ur, gen. ekkna): widow, woman

[1] ekkjur: ekkju 61, ‘eickior’ Bb

notes

[1] ekkjur ‘the widows’: The word ekkja often functions as a general heiti for ‘woman’, but here might have its fuller sense in contrast with the meyjar ‘maidens’ of l. 4, especially since the qualifying Lundar ‘of Lund’ and danskar ‘Danish’ do not contrast sharply, Lund having been Danish territory at this time.

Close

‘of the deceit’

læ (noun n.): deceit, treachery < læbaugr (noun m.): [deceit-ring]

kennings

eik læbaugs
‘the oak of the deceit-ring ’
   = SHIP

the deceit-ring → SEA
the oak of the SEA → SHIP

notes

[2-3] eik læbaugs ‘the oak of the deceit-ring [SEA > SHIP]’: The context demands a ship-kenning with eik ‘oak’ as base-word, and læbaugs appears to be a sea-kenning, though it is unclear how it works (so Meissner 95). (a) The second element -baugs ‘ring, encircler’ would plausibly form part of a determinant meaning ‘sea’, if joined with a word meaning ‘land’, cf. eybaugr m. ‘island-ring [SEA]’ (LP: eybaugr). - in its usual senses ‘deceit, harm, poison’ does not fit semantically, yet is guaranteed by the rhyme and alliteration, and therefore is left to stand here. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: læbaugr) may have been correct to surmise that this is a lost term for ‘land’ or a proper name, perhaps for an island. (b) Kock (NN §1125, followed by ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991) suggested that is ‘poison’ here, and læbaugs ‘poison-ring’ a term for a serpent, hence perhaps a dragon-prow, whose eik ‘oak’ is a dragon-ship. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27, following this, compares Bkrepp Magndr 4/2II vallbaugr ‘field-ring [SNAKE]’. He also cites Hfr ErfÓl 14/2 læsíkr ‘poison-whitefish [SNAKE]’, which refers to the ship Ormr inn langi, but this is structurally different and, as a substitute for a proper name, a special case. It is also problematic in itself, and interpreting as ‘land’ is among the possible solutions (see Note).

Close

‘of the deceit’

læ (noun n.): deceit, treachery < læbaugr (noun m.): [deceit-ring]

kennings

eik læbaugs
‘the oak of the deceit-ring ’
   = SHIP

the deceit-ring → SEA
the oak of the SEA → SHIP

notes

[2-3] eik læbaugs ‘the oak of the deceit-ring [SEA > SHIP]’: The context demands a ship-kenning with eik ‘oak’ as base-word, and læbaugs appears to be a sea-kenning, though it is unclear how it works (so Meissner 95). (a) The second element -baugs ‘ring, encircler’ would plausibly form part of a determinant meaning ‘sea’, if joined with a word meaning ‘land’, cf. eybaugr m. ‘island-ring [SEA]’ (LP: eybaugr). - in its usual senses ‘deceit, harm, poison’ does not fit semantically, yet is guaranteed by the rhyme and alliteration, and therefore is left to stand here. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: læbaugr) may have been correct to surmise that this is a lost term for ‘land’ or a proper name, perhaps for an island. (b) Kock (NN §1125, followed by ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991) suggested that is ‘poison’ here, and læbaugs ‘poison-ring’ a term for a serpent, hence perhaps a dragon-prow, whose eik ‘oak’ is a dragon-ship. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27, following this, compares Bkrepp Magndr 4/2II vallbaugr ‘field-ring [SNAKE]’. He also cites Hfr ErfÓl 14/2 læsíkr ‘poison-whitefish [SNAKE]’, which refers to the ship Ormr inn langi, but this is structurally different and, as a substitute for a proper name, a special case. It is also problematic in itself, and interpreting as ‘land’ is among the possible solutions (see Note).

Close

baugs ‘ring’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring < læbaugr (noun m.): [deceit-ring]

kennings

eik læbaugs
‘the oak of the deceit-ring ’
   = SHIP

the deceit-ring → SEA
the oak of the SEA → SHIP

notes

[2-3] eik læbaugs ‘the oak of the deceit-ring [SEA > SHIP]’: The context demands a ship-kenning with eik ‘oak’ as base-word, and læbaugs appears to be a sea-kenning, though it is unclear how it works (so Meissner 95). (a) The second element -baugs ‘ring, encircler’ would plausibly form part of a determinant meaning ‘sea’, if joined with a word meaning ‘land’, cf. eybaugr m. ‘island-ring [SEA]’ (LP: eybaugr). - in its usual senses ‘deceit, harm, poison’ does not fit semantically, yet is guaranteed by the rhyme and alliteration, and therefore is left to stand here. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: læbaugr) may have been correct to surmise that this is a lost term for ‘land’ or a proper name, perhaps for an island. (b) Kock (NN §1125, followed by ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991) suggested that is ‘poison’ here, and læbaugs ‘poison-ring’ a term for a serpent, hence perhaps a dragon-prow, whose eik ‘oak’ is a dragon-ship. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27, following this, compares Bkrepp Magndr 4/2II vallbaugr ‘field-ring [SNAKE]’. He also cites Hfr ErfÓl 14/2 læsíkr ‘poison-whitefish [SNAKE]’, which refers to the ship Ormr inn langi, but this is structurally different and, as a substitute for a proper name, a special case. It is also problematic in itself, and interpreting as ‘land’ is among the possible solutions (see Note).

Close

baugs ‘ring’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring < læbaugr (noun m.): [deceit-ring]

kennings

eik læbaugs
‘the oak of the deceit-ring ’
   = SHIP

the deceit-ring → SEA
the oak of the SEA → SHIP

notes

[2-3] eik læbaugs ‘the oak of the deceit-ring [SEA > SHIP]’: The context demands a ship-kenning with eik ‘oak’ as base-word, and læbaugs appears to be a sea-kenning, though it is unclear how it works (so Meissner 95). (a) The second element -baugs ‘ring, encircler’ would plausibly form part of a determinant meaning ‘sea’, if joined with a word meaning ‘land’, cf. eybaugr m. ‘island-ring [SEA]’ (LP: eybaugr). - in its usual senses ‘deceit, harm, poison’ does not fit semantically, yet is guaranteed by the rhyme and alliteration, and therefore is left to stand here. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: læbaugr) may have been correct to surmise that this is a lost term for ‘land’ or a proper name, perhaps for an island. (b) Kock (NN §1125, followed by ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991) suggested that is ‘poison’ here, and læbaugs ‘poison-ring’ a term for a serpent, hence perhaps a dragon-prow, whose eik ‘oak’ is a dragon-ship. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27, following this, compares Bkrepp Magndr 4/2II vallbaugr ‘field-ring [SNAKE]’. He also cites Hfr ErfÓl 14/2 læsíkr ‘poison-whitefish [SNAKE]’, which refers to the ship Ormr inn langi, but this is structurally different and, as a substitute for a proper name, a special case. It is also problematic in itself, and interpreting as ‘land’ is among the possible solutions (see Note).

Close

hlæja ‘laugh’

hlæja (verb): laugh

[2] því hlæja: om. 75a;    hlæja: hlýja Bb

Close

skjótum ‘we speed’

skjóta (verb): shoot

[3] skjótum: ‘s[...]tum’ FskBˣ

Close

eik ‘the oak’

eik (noun f.; °eikr/eikar; eikr): oak

kennings

eik læbaugs
‘the oak of the deceit-ring ’
   = SHIP

the deceit-ring → SEA
the oak of the SEA → SHIP

notes

[2-3] eik læbaugs ‘the oak of the deceit-ring [SEA > SHIP]’: The context demands a ship-kenning with eik ‘oak’ as base-word, and læbaugs appears to be a sea-kenning, though it is unclear how it works (so Meissner 95). (a) The second element -baugs ‘ring, encircler’ would plausibly form part of a determinant meaning ‘sea’, if joined with a word meaning ‘land’, cf. eybaugr m. ‘island-ring [SEA]’ (LP: eybaugr). - in its usual senses ‘deceit, harm, poison’ does not fit semantically, yet is guaranteed by the rhyme and alliteration, and therefore is left to stand here. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: læbaugr) may have been correct to surmise that this is a lost term for ‘land’ or a proper name, perhaps for an island. (b) Kock (NN §1125, followed by ÍF 27, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991) suggested that is ‘poison’ here, and læbaugs ‘poison-ring’ a term for a serpent, hence perhaps a dragon-prow, whose eik ‘oak’ is a dragon-ship. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27, following this, compares Bkrepp Magndr 4/2II vallbaugr ‘field-ring [SNAKE]’. He also cites Hfr ErfÓl 14/2 læsíkr ‘poison-whitefish [SNAKE]’, which refers to the ship Ormr inn langi, but this is structurally different and, as a substitute for a proper name, a special case. It is also problematic in itself, and interpreting as ‘land’ is among the possible solutions (see Note).

Close

útan ‘’

útan (prep.): outside, without

[3] útan: ‘utcan’ DG8

Close

ey ‘the island’

1. ey (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar): island

[4] ey né: ‘eyni’ 325V, Bb

notes

[4] ey ‘the island’: See Context for a possible location. 

Close

‘nor’

né (conj.): nor

[4] ey né: ‘eyni’ 325V, Bb

Close

danskar ‘Danish’

danskr (adj.): Danish

[4] danskar: danskrar Flat

Close

Jǫrð ‘Jǫrð’

2. Jǫrð (noun f.): Jǫrð

kennings

Jǫrð flausts ifla,
‘Jǫrð of the ship of the hawk, ’
   = WOMAN

the ship of the hawk, → ARM
Jǫrð of the ARM → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] Jǫrð flausts ifla ‘Jǫrð <goddess> of the ship of the hawk [ARM > WOMAN]’: This arm-kenning is an unusual variant on the pattern ‘land of the hawk’, i.e. place where trained birds perch. Sturl Hákkv 33/2II contains the later example ferja hauka ‘ferry of hawks’, and cf. Meissner 142. Ifla could be gen. sg. of ifli m. ‘hawk’, as assumed here, or possibly gen. pl. The enclosing woman-kenning seems to be an apostrophe, though no medieval source provides an interlocutor. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) pictured Hárekr addressing the stanza to his wife on return to Þjótta.

Close

eigi ‘I did not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

Close

þørðak ‘dare’

þora (verb): dare

[5] þørðak: so Holm2, 75a, Holm4, Flat, þorða Kˣ, FskAˣ, FskBˣ, þyrðag 73aˣ, ‘þærþag’ 68, þyrða 61, 325V, þørða 75c, þerða Bb, þorðat Tóm, þorðim DG8

Close

ifla ‘of the hawk’

ifli (noun m.): hawk

[6] ifla: ‘Jfa laust’ Tóm

kennings

Jǫrð flausts ifla,
‘Jǫrð of the ship of the hawk, ’
   = WOMAN

the ship of the hawk, → ARM
Jǫrð of the ARM → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] Jǫrð flausts ifla ‘Jǫrð <goddess> of the ship of the hawk [ARM > WOMAN]’: This arm-kenning is an unusual variant on the pattern ‘land of the hawk’, i.e. place where trained birds perch. Sturl Hákkv 33/2II contains the later example ferja hauka ‘ferry of hawks’, and cf. Meissner 142. Ifla could be gen. sg. of ifli m. ‘hawk’, as assumed here, or possibly gen. pl. The enclosing woman-kenning seems to be an apostrophe, though no medieval source provides an interlocutor. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) pictured Hárekr addressing the stanza to his wife on return to Þjótta.

Close

ifla ‘of the hawk’

ifli (noun m.): hawk

[6] ifla: ‘Jfa laust’ Tóm

kennings

Jǫrð flausts ifla,
‘Jǫrð of the ship of the hawk, ’
   = WOMAN

the ship of the hawk, → ARM
Jǫrð of the ARM → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] Jǫrð flausts ifla ‘Jǫrð <goddess> of the ship of the hawk [ARM > WOMAN]’: This arm-kenning is an unusual variant on the pattern ‘land of the hawk’, i.e. place where trained birds perch. Sturl Hákkv 33/2II contains the later example ferja hauka ‘ferry of hawks’, and cf. Meissner 142. Ifla could be gen. sg. of ifli m. ‘hawk’, as assumed here, or possibly gen. pl. The enclosing woman-kenning seems to be an apostrophe, though no medieval source provides an interlocutor. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) pictured Hárekr addressing the stanza to his wife on return to Þjótta.

Close

flausts ‘of the ship’

flaustr (noun n.): ship

[6] flausts: flaust J2ˣ, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 75c, Bb, Flat, DG8, ‘flauts’ Holm2, flaustr 61, Tóm, flaugs FskBˣ

kennings

Jǫrð flausts ifla,
‘Jǫrð of the ship of the hawk, ’
   = WOMAN

the ship of the hawk, → ARM
Jǫrð of the ARM → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] Jǫrð flausts ifla ‘Jǫrð <goddess> of the ship of the hawk [ARM > WOMAN]’: This arm-kenning is an unusual variant on the pattern ‘land of the hawk’, i.e. place where trained birds perch. Sturl Hákkv 33/2II contains the later example ferja hauka ‘ferry of hawks’, and cf. Meissner 142. Ifla could be gen. sg. of ifli m. ‘hawk’, as assumed here, or possibly gen. pl. The enclosing woman-kenning seems to be an apostrophe, though no medieval source provides an interlocutor. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) pictured Hárekr addressing the stanza to his wife on return to Þjótta.

Close

flausts ‘of the ship’

flaustr (noun n.): ship

[6] flausts: flaust J2ˣ, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 75c, Bb, Flat, DG8, ‘flauts’ Holm2, flaustr 61, Tóm, flaugs FskBˣ

kennings

Jǫrð flausts ifla,
‘Jǫrð of the ship of the hawk, ’
   = WOMAN

the ship of the hawk, → ARM
Jǫrð of the ARM → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] Jǫrð flausts ifla ‘Jǫrð <goddess> of the ship of the hawk [ARM > WOMAN]’: This arm-kenning is an unusual variant on the pattern ‘land of the hawk’, i.e. place where trained birds perch. Sturl Hákkv 33/2II contains the later example ferja hauka ‘ferry of hawks’, and cf. Meissner 142. Ifla could be gen. sg. of ifli m. ‘hawk’, as assumed here, or possibly gen. pl. The enclosing woman-kenning seems to be an apostrophe, though no medieval source provides an interlocutor. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) pictured Hárekr addressing the stanza to his wife on return to Þjótta.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[6] í: so Holm2, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, Holm4, 75c, Bb, Flat, FskBˣ, DG8, á Kˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 325V, FskAˣ, at Tóm

Close

hausti ‘the autumn’

haust (noun n.; °-s; -): autumn

[6] hausti: hausta Bb

Close

á ‘over’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[7] á flat‑: afla Bb

Close

flat ‘the level’

flatr (adj.): level, shame-faced < flatslóð (noun f.)

[7] á flat‑: afla Bb

kennings

flatslóðir Fróða.
‘the level tracks of Fróði. ’
   = SEA

the level tracks of Fróði. → SEA

notes

[7] flatslóðir Fróða ‘the level tracks of Fróði <sea-king> [SEA]’: The kenning follows a well-known pattern in which sea is referred to as the land of a sea-king, named but usually shadowy (see examples in Meissner 92-3). Fróði appears in a list of sea-kings in Þul Sækonunga 1/1III but is better known as a legendary king of the Danes (see Notes to Þjóð Yt 1/2 and Eyv Lv 8/5-7), and the choice of this name chimes with the other Danish allusions in the stanza. 

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slóðir ‘tracks’

slóð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path, track < flatslóð (noun f.)

[7] ‑slóðir: ‑sólar 68, ‑slóðar 61, 325V, Tóm, ‑slóðir apparently corrected from ‘soðar’ DG8

kennings

flatslóðir Fróða.
‘the level tracks of Fróði. ’
   = SEA

the level tracks of Fróði. → SEA

notes

[7] flatslóðir Fróða ‘the level tracks of Fróði <sea-king> [SEA]’: The kenning follows a well-known pattern in which sea is referred to as the land of a sea-king, named but usually shadowy (see examples in Meissner 92-3). Fróði appears in a list of sea-kings in Þul Sækonunga 1/1III but is better known as a legendary king of the Danes (see Notes to Þjóð Yt 1/2 and Eyv Lv 8/5-7), and the choice of this name chimes with the other Danish allusions in the stanza. 

Close

Fróða ‘of Fróði’

Fróði (noun m.): Fróði

[7] Fróða: fóla 68, láta FskBˣ

kennings

flatslóðir Fróða.
‘the level tracks of Fróði. ’
   = SEA

the level tracks of Fróði. → SEA

notes

[7] flatslóðir Fróða ‘the level tracks of Fróði <sea-king> [SEA]’: The kenning follows a well-known pattern in which sea is referred to as the land of a sea-king, named but usually shadowy (see examples in Meissner 92-3). Fróði appears in a list of sea-kings in Þul Sækonunga 1/1III but is better known as a legendary king of the Danes (see Notes to Þjóð Yt 1/2 and Eyv Lv 8/5-7), and the choice of this name chimes with the other Danish allusions in the stanza. 

Close

fara ‘to travel’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[8] fara: fóru Flat

Close

Vali ‘in the Valr’

Valr (noun m.; °; -ir): Valr, ?horse

[8] Vali: vala 68, FskAˣ

kennings

Vali krapta
‘in the Valr of the bollard ’
   = SHIP

in the Valr of the bollard → SHIP

notes

[8] Vali krapta ‘in the Valr <horse> of the bollard [SHIP]’: Valr, a word for ‘hawk’, became a horse-heiti and hence enters into kennings for ‘ship’; see Þloft Tøgdr 5/6 and Note. The determinant here is the gen. sg. or gen. pl. of krapti ‘bollard’, which is ‘the wooden protuberance on the hull of a ship (or boat) to which the mooring-rope could be attached’ (Jesch 2001a, 170).

Close

krapta ‘of the bollard’

krafti (noun m.; °-a): [bollard, planked]

kennings

Vali krapta
‘in the Valr of the bollard ’
   = SHIP

in the Valr of the bollard → SHIP

notes

[8] Vali krapta ‘in the Valr <horse> of the bollard [SHIP]’: Valr, a word for ‘hawk’, became a horse-heiti and hence enters into kennings for ‘ship’; see Þloft Tøgdr 5/6 and Note. The determinant here is the gen. sg. or gen. pl. of krapti ‘bollard’, which is ‘the wooden protuberance on the hull of a ship (or boat) to which the mooring-rope could be attached’ (Jesch 2001a, 170).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to Lv 1. This stanza is spoken as Hárekr leaves the Eyrarsund (Øresund); ÓH-Hkr specify that he is sailing north past Veðrey (Väderø, Skåne).

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