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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 6I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 903.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
567

Íra ‘of the Irish’

írar (noun m.): Irishmen

Close

ókvíðinn ‘the unworried’

ókvíðinn (adj./verb p.p.): unworried, fearless

[2] ókvíðinn: ‘okíndinn’ 54

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

lét ‘caused’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[2] lét síðan: réð víða 61, 53, 54, Bb(22va), Flat, reið víða 62

notes

[2] síðan lét ‘then … caused’: The ÓT reading réð víða is equally possible, with réð as ‘decided’ or a pleonastic auxiliary and víða adv. ‘widely’.

Close

síðan ‘Then’

síðan (adv.): later, then

[2] lét síðan: réð víða 61, 53, 54, Bb(22va), Flat, reið víða 62

notes

[2] síðan lét ‘then … caused’: The ÓT reading réð víða is equally possible, with réð as ‘decided’ or a pleonastic auxiliary and víða adv. ‘widely’.

Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élfreyr (noun m.)

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élfreyr (noun m.)

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Freyr ‘Freyr’

Freyr (noun m.): (a god) < élfreyr (noun m.)

[3] Freyr: ‑þeyr 62, ‘‑þreyrr’ Flat

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Ullar ‘of Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

[3] Ullar: so 61, 54, Bb(22va), Flat, ulfar Bb(111vb), ‘vllra’ 62

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] Ullar kjóla ‘of the ships of Ullr <god> [SHIELDS]’: This is a recognized type of shield-kenning (SnE 1998, I, 67; Meissner 166), but the myth that must underlie it is now lost; see further Note to Gamlkan Has 64/1VII.

Close

Ullar ‘of Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

[3] Ullar: so 61, 54, Bb(22va), Flat, ulfar Bb(111vb), ‘vllra’ 62

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] Ullar kjóla ‘of the ships of Ullr <god> [SHIELDS]’: This is a recognized type of shield-kenning (SnE 1998, I, 67; Meissner 166), but the myth that must underlie it is now lost; see further Note to Gamlkan Has 64/1VII.

Close

Ullar ‘of Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

[3] Ullar: so 61, 54, Bb(22va), Flat, ulfar Bb(111vb), ‘vllra’ 62

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] Ullar kjóla ‘of the ships of Ullr <god> [SHIELDS]’: This is a recognized type of shield-kenning (SnE 1998, I, 67; Meissner 166), but the myth that must underlie it is now lost; see further Note to Gamlkan Has 64/1VII.

Close

kjóla ‘of the ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] Ullar kjóla ‘of the ships of Ullr <god> [SHIELDS]’: This is a recognized type of shield-kenning (SnE 1998, I, 67; Meissner 166), but the myth that must underlie it is now lost; see further Note to Gamlkan Has 64/1VII.

Close

kjóla ‘of the ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] Ullar kjóla ‘of the ships of Ullr <god> [SHIELDS]’: This is a recognized type of shield-kenning (SnE 1998, I, 67; Meissner 166), but the myth that must underlie it is now lost; see further Note to Gamlkan Has 64/1VII.

Close

kjóla ‘of the ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship

kennings

ókvíðinn Ullar kjóla él-Freyr
‘storm-Freyr of the ships of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the ships of Ullr → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the unworried Freyr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] Ullar kjóla ‘of the ships of Ullr <god> [SHIELDS]’: This is a recognized type of shield-kenning (SnE 1998, I, 67; Meissner 166), but the myth that must underlie it is now lost; see further Note to Gamlkan Has 64/1VII.

Close

fíkula ‘to be powerfully’

fíkula (adv.): greedily, powerfully

[4] fíkula: ‘fikur la’ 54, ‘fikíu la’ Bb(22va), ríkula Flat

Close

brenndar ‘burned down’

3. brenna (verb; (weak, transitive)): to burn (weak, intr.)

[4] brenndar: brenndan 61, brenndir Flat

Close

land ‘land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < Skotland (noun n.): [Scotland]

[5] ‑land: so 61, 62, Flat, ‑lands Bb(111vb), 53, 54, Bb(22va)

Close

skǫrpum ‘sharp’

skarpr (adj.): sharp, bitter

[5] skǫrpum: skǫfnum 61, 53, 54, Bb(22va), skǫmmum 62, Flat

Close

skjald ‘The shield’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield < (non-lexical) (unclassified)

[6] skjald†fryðr†: ‘skiallprydr’ 62, skjótfróðr Flat

kennings

Skjald†fryðr†
‘The shield-... ’
   = WARRIOR

The shield-... → WARRIOR

notes

[6] skjaldfryðr ‘the shield-... [WARRIOR?]’: A warrior-kenning is indicated by the context. The meaning of the element ‑fryðr is obscure, but it is the reading of most mss; ‘pryðr’ in 61 may result from a misreading of <f> as <p>. Flat has skjótfróðr ‘shooting-wise/swift-wise’ rhyming with rjóða ‘redden’, which may be a scribal emendation, but Skj B and Skald take the lead from Flat in reading skotfróðr, again ‘shooting-wise’, and rjóða. Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) suggests the emendation skjaldbjóðr ‘shield-offerer’.

Close

†fryðr† ‘...’

(non-lexical) < (non-lexical) (unclassified)

[6] skjald†fryðr†: ‘skiallprydr’ 62, skjótfróðr Flat

kennings

Skjald†fryðr†
‘The shield-... ’
   = WARRIOR

The shield-... → WARRIOR

notes

[6] skjaldfryðr ‘the shield-... [WARRIOR?]’: A warrior-kenning is indicated by the context. The meaning of the element ‑fryðr is obscure, but it is the reading of most mss; ‘pryðr’ in 61 may result from a misreading of <f> as <p>. Flat has skjótfróðr ‘shooting-wise/swift-wise’ rhyming with rjóða ‘redden’, which may be a scribal emendation, but Skj B and Skald take the lead from Flat in reading skotfróðr, again ‘shooting-wise’, and rjóða. Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) suggests the emendation skjaldbjóðr ‘shield-offerer’.

Close

of ‘proceeded’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[6] of: af or of Bb(111vb), ok 61, 53, 54, Bb(22va), 62, om. Flat

notes

[6] of: Emendation to the expletive particle is necessary here, and is adopted in previous eds. The ms. readings af ‘from’ and ok ‘and’ do not fit the sense and syntax of the helmingr but both could be corruptions of of by scribes more familiar with the later expletive form um. Further, the vowel graph in Bb(111vb) is unclear and could be taken as <o>.

Close

ryðja ‘to clear’

2. ryðja (verb): to clear (free) land

[6] ryðja: rjóða Flat

Close

sǫddusk ‘had their fill’

seðja (verb): satisfy, satiate

Close

ódeigr ‘the unblunt’

ódeigr (adj.): [unblunt]

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After citing st. 4/5-8, ÓT relates that Óláfr proceeds via Northumbria to Scotland and raids there (illustrated by st. 6/5-8), then harries the Hebrides, Man and finally Ireland (illustrated by st. 6/1-4).

As noted in the Context, the helmingar of the stanza are in reverse order in ÓT, and consequently printed thus in some eds. For Óláfr’s campaigns in Scotland and Ireland, see also Hfr Óldr 6 and the later Anon Óldr 6.

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