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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 3I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 900.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
234

Senn ‘at the same time’

senn (adv.): at once

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ǫll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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síðan ‘Then’

síðan (adv.): later, then

notes

[All]: Printed as st. 4 in previous eds following the order in ÓT; see Introduction.

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runnu ‘a great many’

2. renna (verb): run (strong)

notes

[All]: The action of the poem moves from Garðar to the British Isles, and, with the exception of the attack on the Wends in st. 5, raids in north-west Europe such as are specified in Hfr Óldr 1-4 are not narrated. Much the same is true of Anon Óldr: see Óldr 5 and Note to [All].

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snekkju ‘ship’

snekkja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): warship < snekkjubarð (noun n.)

notes

[2] snekkjubǫrð ‘ship-stems’: This may be a pars pro toto expression for ships. It is taken as a cpd in Skald, as here, but as two words in Skj B.

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bǫrð ‘stems’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship) < snekkjubarð (noun n.)

notes

[2] snekkjubǫrð ‘ship-stems’: This may be a pars pro toto expression for ships. It is taken as a cpd in Skald, as here, but as two words in Skj B.

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Gǫrðum ‘Russia’

Garðar (noun m.): Russia

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mǫrg ‘ly’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many < hermargr (adj.): a great deal

[3] hermǫrg: ‘herding’ 62, ‘hergín’ Flat

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hôla ‘sped’

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tǫrguð ‘equipped with shields’

targaðr (adj./verb p.p.): equipped with shields

[3] tǫrguð: so 61, 54, Bb(22va), ‘tiorgod’ Bb(111va), 53, 62, ‘urgut’ Flat

notes

[3] tǫrguð ‘equipped with shields’: This is n. nom. pl. of the adj. targaðr from targa ‘(round) shield’. The variant tjǫrguð would mean ‘tarred’.

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[4] und: um Flat

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virða ‘of men’

virðr (noun m.): man

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ver ‘{with sea’

1. ver (noun n.; °-s; dat. -jum/-um): sea < verfákr (noun m.)

kennings

verfôkum,
‘with sea-steeds ’
   = SHIPS

with sea-steeds → SHIPS
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fôkum ‘steeds’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse < verfákr (noun m.)

kennings

verfôkum,
‘with sea-steeds ’
   = SHIPS

with sea-steeds → SHIPS
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lét ‘’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[6] lét: réð 61, 53, 54, Flat, reið 62

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al ‘The most’

al- ((prefix)): very < aldyggr (adj.): very excellent

kennings

Aldyggr arfi Tryggva,
‘The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, ’
   = Óláfr

The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, → Óláfr
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dyggr ‘excellent’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy < aldyggr (adj.): very excellent

kennings

Aldyggr arfi Tryggva,
‘The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, ’
   = Óláfr

The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, → Óláfr
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arfi ‘heir’

arfi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): heir, heiress

kennings

Aldyggr arfi Tryggva,
‘The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, ’
   = Óláfr

The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, → Óláfr
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Tryggva ‘of Tryggvi’

Tryggvi (noun m.): Tryggvi

kennings

Aldyggr arfi Tryggva,
‘The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, ’
   = Óláfr

The most excellent heir of Tryggvi, → Óláfr
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Óláfr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

notes

[8] Óláfr: The form Óláfr, rather than the older Ôleifr, is attested as early as the end of the C11th (see Steinn Óldr 5/8II Óláfr : sólu and Note) and is indicated in Rst by Óláfr : stóli in st. 2/8 and Óláfr : sólar in st. 10/8 (stef). It is used throughout the present edn. The rhymes of Óláf- on stôlum here and on dála in st. 8/6 are therefore slightly inexact. Rhymes involving ô : ó (cf. 8/2 hôtt : dróttir and 35/4 hóps : drôpu) may have arisen and been deemed permissable by Hallar-Steinn’s time since the development of Ôleifr into Óláfr would have made rhymes such as Ôleifr : stôlum in earlier poetry seem inexact. In the present stanza, Skj B (but not Skald) reads stólum as the form required to produce aðalhending on Óláfr.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[8] ok: of 53, 54, Bb(22va), om. Flat

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klauf ‘slashed’

kljúfa (verb): cleave

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stôlum ‘with steel weapons’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

[8] stôlum: straumi 54, Bb(22va)

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Óláfr sails from Russia to Denmark, then crosses the sea west to the British Isles.  

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