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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 29I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 29’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 930.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
282930

Dáð ‘deed’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed < dáðstyrkr (adj.)

[1] Dáðstyrk: so 61, 53, 54, Flat, dreyrserks Bb(112rb), ‘daðstvrk’ Bb(94vb)

notes

[All]: The tale about Óláfr and Þorkell dyðrill is narrated in Anon Ól as well as in ÓT 1958-2000, II, 231-6 and ÓTOdd (ÍF 25, 267-70); see Introduction to Anon Ól for a summary. — [1, 2] dáðstyrk ... dolgminnigs ‘deed-strong ... strife-mindful’: (a) The ÓT reading adj. dáðstyrk ‘deed-strong’ in l. 1 qualifies merki ‘sign(s)’, and styrk : merki produce a regular skothending. The ÓT reading adj. dolgminnigs ‘strife-mindful’ in l. 2 qualifies the warrior-kenning. (b) The readings of the continuous Bb text, dreyrserks ‘of the blood-shirt, mail-shirt’ and dáðminnigs ‘deed-mindful’, could possibly make sense if taken together as ‘deed-mindful of the blood-shirt’, i.e. intent on great deeds in battle, with ‘mail-shirt’ as a metonym for battle. However, this is stylistically improbable. The reading ‑serks produces an aðalhending on merki, which is less regular in an odd line, though also possible.

Close

Dáð ‘deed’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed < dáðstyrkr (adj.)

[1] Dáðstyrk: so 61, 53, 54, Flat, dreyrserks Bb(112rb), ‘daðstvrk’ Bb(94vb)

notes

[All]: The tale about Óláfr and Þorkell dyðrill is narrated in Anon Ól as well as in ÓT 1958-2000, II, 231-6 and ÓTOdd (ÍF 25, 267-70); see Introduction to Anon Ól for a summary. — [1, 2] dáðstyrk ... dolgminnigs ‘deed-strong ... strife-mindful’: (a) The ÓT reading adj. dáðstyrk ‘deed-strong’ in l. 1 qualifies merki ‘sign(s)’, and styrk : merki produce a regular skothending. The ÓT reading adj. dolgminnigs ‘strife-mindful’ in l. 2 qualifies the warrior-kenning. (b) The readings of the continuous Bb text, dreyrserks ‘of the blood-shirt, mail-shirt’ and dáðminnigs ‘deed-mindful’, could possibly make sense if taken together as ‘deed-mindful of the blood-shirt’, i.e. intent on great deeds in battle, with ‘mail-shirt’ as a metonym for battle. However, this is stylistically improbable. The reading ‑serks produces an aðalhending on merki, which is less regular in an odd line, though also possible.

Close

styrk ‘strong’

2. styrkr (adj.): powerful, strong < dáðstyrkr (adj.)

[1] Dáðstyrk: so 61, 53, 54, Flat, dreyrserks Bb(112rb), ‘daðstvrk’ Bb(94vb)

notes

[1, 2] dáðstyrk ... dolgminnigs ‘deed-strong ... strife-mindful’: (a) The ÓT reading adj. dáðstyrk ‘deed-strong’ in l. 1 qualifies merki ‘sign(s)’, and styrk : merki produce a regular skothending. The ÓT reading adj. dolgminnigs ‘strife-mindful’ in l. 2 qualifies the warrior-kenning. (b) The readings of the continuous Bb text, dreyrserks ‘of the blood-shirt, mail-shirt’ and dáðminnigs ‘deed-mindful’, could possibly make sense if taken together as ‘deed-mindful of the blood-shirt’, i.e. intent on great deeds in battle, with ‘mail-shirt’ as a metonym for battle. However, this is stylistically improbable. The reading ‑serks produces an aðalhending on merki, which is less regular in an odd line, though also possible.

Close

dýrðar ‘of glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

notes

[All]: Each helmingr contains an extended warrior-kenning which duplicates a referent (‘shield’ in the first and ‘battle’ in the second).

Close

dolg ‘of the strife’

dolg (noun n.): battle, enemy < dolgminnigr (adj.)

[2] dolg‑: so all others, dáð‑ Bb(112rb)

notes

[1, 2] dáðstyrk ... dolgminnigs ‘deed-strong ... strife-mindful’: (a) The ÓT reading adj. dáðstyrk ‘deed-strong’ in l. 1 qualifies merki ‘sign(s)’, and styrk : merki produce a regular skothending. The ÓT reading adj. dolgminnigs ‘strife-mindful’ in l. 2 qualifies the warrior-kenning. (b) The readings of the continuous Bb text, dreyrserks ‘of the blood-shirt, mail-shirt’ and dáðminnigs ‘deed-mindful’, could possibly make sense if taken together as ‘deed-mindful of the blood-shirt’, i.e. intent on great deeds in battle, with ‘mail-shirt’ as a metonym for battle. However, this is stylistically improbable. The reading ‑serks produces an aðalhending on merki, which is less regular in an odd line, though also possible.

Close

minnigs ‘mindful’

minnigr (adj.; °compar. minngari, superl. -astr/minngastr): mindful < dolgminnigr (adj.)

[2] ‑minnigs: ‑mennings 54, Bb(94vb), ‘‑mennis’ Flat

notes

[1, 2] dáðstyrk ... dolgminnigs ‘deed-strong ... strife-mindful’: (a) The ÓT reading adj. dáðstyrk ‘deed-strong’ in l. 1 qualifies merki ‘sign(s)’, and styrk : merki produce a regular skothending. The ÓT reading adj. dolgminnigs ‘strife-mindful’ in l. 2 qualifies the warrior-kenning. (b) The readings of the continuous Bb text, dreyrserks ‘of the blood-shirt, mail-shirt’ and dáðminnigs ‘deed-mindful’, could possibly make sense if taken together as ‘deed-mindful of the blood-shirt’, i.e. intent on great deeds in battle, with ‘mail-shirt’ as a metonym for battle. However, this is stylistically improbable. The reading ‑serks produces an aðalhending on merki, which is less regular in an odd line, though also possible.

Close

skalk ‘I will’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[2] skalk: fetk all others

notes

[2] skalk ‘I will’: The ÓT reading, preferred in Skj B and Skald, is fetk ‘I make my way, manage’, which can also function as an auxiliary verb.

Close

ský ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýbjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

ský ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýbjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

bjóðs ‘offerer’

2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < skýbjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

skelfi ‘of the terrifying’

skelfir (noun m.): terrifier < skelfihríð (noun f.)

[3] skelfi‑: skjalfa 53, skelfur Flat

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

skelfi ‘of the terrifying’

skelfir (noun m.): terrifier < skelfihríð (noun f.)

[3] skelfi‑: skjalfa 53, skelfur Flat

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

skelfi ‘of the terrifying’

skelfir (noun m.): terrifier < skelfihríð (noun f.)

[3] skelfi‑: skjalfa 53, skelfur Flat

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hríðar ‘storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < skelfihríð (noun f.)

[3] ‑hríðar: so all others, ‘ridar’ Bb(112rb)

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hríðar ‘storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < skelfihríð (noun f.)

[3] ‑hríðar: so all others, ‘ridar’ Bb(112rb)

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hríðar ‘storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < skelfihríð (noun f.)

[3] ‑hríðar: so all others, ‘ridar’ Bb(112rb)

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

Skǫglar ‘of Skǫgul’

Skǫgul (noun f.): Skǫgul

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

Skǫglar ‘of Skǫgul’

Skǫgul (noun f.): Skǫgul

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

Skǫglar ‘of Skǫgul’

Skǫgul (noun f.): Skǫgul

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

Skǫglar ‘of Skǫgul’

Skǫgul (noun f.): Skǫgul

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

borðs ‘of the board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

borðs ‘of the board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

borðs ‘of the board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

borðs ‘of the board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

Skǫglar borðs skelfihríðar skýbjóðs.
‘cloud-offerer of the terrifying storm of the board of Skǫgul’
   = WARRIOR

the board of Skǫgul. → SHIELD
the terrifying storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
offerer of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

in ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[1, 4] in fjorðu merki ‘the fourth sign’: In st. 25 we hear of Óláfr performing two feats simultaneously, and in sts 26-8 of how he saved a man. These are possibly counted by the skald as three signs or miracles, to which a fourth is now added. The phrase is grammatically pl.

Close

fjorðu ‘fourth’

fjórði (num. ordinal): fourth

notes

[1, 4] in fjorðu merki ‘the fourth sign’: In st. 25 we hear of Óláfr performing two feats simultaneously, and in sts 26-8 of how he saved a man. These are possibly counted by the skald as three signs or miracles, to which a fourth is now added. The phrase is grammatically pl.

Close

Harð ‘of the hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < harðleygr (noun m.)

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Harð ‘of the hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < harðleygr (noun m.)

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Harð ‘of the hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < harðleygr (noun m.)

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

leygs ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < harðleygr (noun m.)

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

leygs ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < harðleygr (noun m.)

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

leygs ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < harðleygr (noun m.)

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hrinda ‘threw’

1. hrinda (verb): launch, propell

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

Close

frôgum ‘We [I] have heard’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[5] Harðleygs hrinda frôgum: hart skyndir nam hrinda 61, 53, 54, Bb(94vb), hoddskyndi frá hrinda Flat

Close

lyndum ‘minded’

lyndr (adj.; °superl. -astr): minded < hvatlyndr (adj.)

[6] ‑lyndum: skyndum 54, lyndr Flat

Close

Þorkatli ‘Þorkell’

Þórkell (noun m.): [Þorkell]

notes

[6] Þorkatli ‘Þorkell’: See Context and Note to [All] above.

Close

styr ‘of the tumult’

styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle < styrlundr (noun m.)

[7] styrlund*: styrlundr all

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] styrlund* ‘the tree of the tumult (lit. ‘tumult-tree’)’: This edn follows Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) in emending the Bb(112rb) reading styrlundr to the acc. sg. form -lund which is necessary to produce an inf. with acc. construction with (frôgum) hrinda, lit. ‘(we [I] have heard) to throw’.

Close

styr ‘of the tumult’

styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle < styrlundr (noun m.)

[7] styrlund*: styrlundr all

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] styrlund* ‘the tree of the tumult (lit. ‘tumult-tree’)’: This edn follows Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) in emending the Bb(112rb) reading styrlundr to the acc. sg. form -lund which is necessary to produce an inf. with acc. construction with (frôgum) hrinda, lit. ‘(we [I] have heard) to throw’.

Close

lund* ‘the tree’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree < styrlundr (noun m.)

[7] styrlund*: styrlundr all

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] styrlund* ‘the tree of the tumult (lit. ‘tumult-tree’)’: This edn follows Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) in emending the Bb(112rb) reading styrlundr to the acc. sg. form -lund which is necessary to produce an inf. with acc. construction with (frôgum) hrinda, lit. ‘(we [I] have heard) to throw’.

Close

stirðra ‘of rigid’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

[7] stirðra: so 61, 53, ‘stidra’ Bb(112rb), stríðra 54, Bb(94vb), Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

stirðra ‘of rigid’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

[7] stirðra: so 61, 53, ‘stidra’ Bb(112rb), stríðra 54, Bb(94vb), Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

stirðra ‘of rigid’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

[7] stirðra: so 61, 53, ‘stidra’ Bb(112rb), stríðra 54, Bb(94vb), Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

stirðra ‘of rigid’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

[7] stirðra: so 61, 53, ‘stidra’ Bb(112rb), stríðra 54, Bb(94vb), Flat

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

branda ‘blades’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

branda ‘blades’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

branda ‘blades’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

branda ‘blades’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

storms ‘of the storm’

stormr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): storm

[8] storms: storm 53

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

storms ‘of the storm’

stormr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): storm

[8] storms: storm 53

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

storms ‘of the storm’

stormr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): storm

[8] storms: storm 53

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

storms ‘of the storm’

stormr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): storm

[8] storms: storm 53

kennings

stirðra branda storms harðleygs styrlund*
‘tumult-tree of the hard flame of the storm of rigid blades’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of rigid blades → BATTLE
the hard flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tumult of the SWORD → BATTLE
the tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

[8] af: á 61, 53, Bb(94vb)

Close

Ormi ‘Ormr (‘the Serpent’)’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

notes

[8] Ormi ‘Ormr (“the Serpent”)’: See Note to st. 18/2.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

One of Óláfr’s retainers, Þorkell dyðrill ‘Cloak’, is curious about the king’s whereabouts, as he leaves the ship every night. As a good-natured punishment Óláfr throws him overboard but drags him immediately back on board.

[5-8]: There are significant divergences between the versions of the second helmingr (cf. Readings), though the meaning they produce is roughly the same. Finnur Jónsson in Skj B (followed in essentials in Skald) construes the ÓT version as follows: stórlyndr skunduðr [ms. skyndir] storms stirðra branda nam hrinda hart hvatlyndum Þórkatli fyr borð af Ormi ‘the noble hastener of the storm of rigid blades [BATTLE > WARRIOR] sharply threw the quick-minded Þorkell overboard from Ormr’. As in the first helmingr, the kenning structure is simpler because ÓT has an adj., here stórlyndr ‘noble, great-minded’, where Bb(112rb) has a noun cpd (styrlundr, l. 7; see Note).

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