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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 25I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 927.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
242526

senn ‘at the same time’

senn (adv.): at once

Close

tiggja ‘of the ruler’

tiggi (noun m.; °-ja): king

Close

es ‘I’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[2] es (‘er’): om. 61

Close

veitk ‘know’

1. vita (verb): know

[2] veitk (‘ek veit’): rétt 53, veit 54, Bb(94rb)

Close

færi ‘few’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few

[2] færi: so 61, 53, 54, Flat, smæri Bb(112rb), farri Bb(94rb)

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[2] færi ‘few’: Lit. ‘fewer’. This, the ÓT reading, gives good sense, and qualifies the kenning for ‘warriors’ in l. 3. This kenning is the object of veit ‘know’, forming the part of an elliptical acc. with inf. construction which is completed by understanding inf. fremja ‘to perform’ or hafa framit ‘have performed’ from framði ‘performed’ in l. 4 (so also Skj B). The Bb reading smæri ‘smaller’ would qualify the warrior-kenning, referring to lesser men, but it is not normally used metaphorically and leaves the clause incomplete.

Close

gný ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýlinnr (noun m.)

[3] gnýlinns: gunnelds all others

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

gný ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýlinnr (noun m.)

[3] gnýlinns: gunnelds all others

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

gný ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýlinnr (noun m.)

[3] gnýlinns: gunnelds all others

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

linns ‘of the snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake < gnýlinnr (noun m.)

[3] gnýlinns: gunnelds all others

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

linns ‘of the snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake < gnýlinnr (noun m.)

[3] gnýlinns: gunnelds all others

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[3] Gǫndlar: geymir 61, geymi 53, 54, Bb(94rb), Flat

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[3] Gǫndlar: geymir 61, geymi 53, 54, Bb(94rb), Flat

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[3] Gǫndlar: geymir 61, geymi 53, 54, Bb(94rb), Flat

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

runna ‘trees’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

[3] runna: unna 61, ‑runnar 53

kennings

færi Gǫndlar gnýlinns runna;
‘trees of the din-snake of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIORS

the din of Gǫndul [have performed]; → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
few trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

gramr ‘The prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

Hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrbaldr (noun m.)

[5] Hyr‑: hnig‑ all others

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[5] hyr-Baldr ‘the Baldr <god> of the fire (lit. ‘fire-Baldr’)’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) adopts the reading hyr from Bb(112rb), departing from the ÓT version normally preferred in his edn. The ÓT reading is hnig-Baldr ‘sinking Baldr of white shields [WARRIOR]’, where the prefixed hnig- is odd in juxtaposition with a conventional shield-kenning. It could perhaps mean that the warrior lowers his shield as a sign of courage, but it seems more likely that hnig- is an error encouraged by hnig- in st. 24/3.

Close

Hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrbaldr (noun m.)

[5] Hyr‑: hnig‑ all others

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[5] hyr-Baldr ‘the Baldr <god> of the fire (lit. ‘fire-Baldr’)’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) adopts the reading hyr from Bb(112rb), departing from the ÓT version normally preferred in his edn. The ÓT reading is hnig-Baldr ‘sinking Baldr of white shields [WARRIOR]’, where the prefixed hnig- is odd in juxtaposition with a conventional shield-kenning. It could perhaps mean that the warrior lowers his shield as a sign of courage, but it seems more likely that hnig- is an error encouraged by hnig- in st. 24/3.

Close

Baldr ‘The Baldr’

Baldr (noun m.): [Baldr, Baldur] < hyrbaldr (noun m.)

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[5] hyr-Baldr ‘the Baldr <god> of the fire (lit. ‘fire-Baldr’)’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) adopts the reading hyr from Bb(112rb), departing from the ÓT version normally preferred in his edn. The ÓT reading is hnig-Baldr ‘sinking Baldr of white shields [WARRIOR]’, where the prefixed hnig- is odd in juxtaposition with a conventional shield-kenning. It could perhaps mean that the warrior lowers his shield as a sign of courage, but it seems more likely that hnig- is an error encouraged by hnig- in st. 24/3.

Close

hvítra ‘of white’

hvítr (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): white

[5] hvítra: hvíta 54

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr
Close

hvítra ‘of white’

hvítr (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): white

[5] hvítra: hvíta 54

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr
Close

skjalda ‘shields’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr
Close

skjalda ‘shields’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

kennings

Hvítra skjalda hyr-Baldr,
‘fire-Baldr of white shields’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

the fire of white shields, → SWORD
The Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Óláfr
Close

lék ‘juggled’

3. leika (verb): play

Close

flein ‘the spear’

fleinn (noun m.; °dat. fleini): spear < fleinrjóðr (noun m.): spear-reddener

kennings

fleinrjóðr,
‘the spear-reddener, ’
   = WARRIOR

the spear-reddener, → WARRIOR
Close

rjóðr ‘reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < fleinrjóðr (noun m.): spear-reddener

kennings

fleinrjóðr,
‘the spear-reddener, ’
   = WARRIOR

the spear-reddener, → WARRIOR
Close

flestra ‘in most’

fleiri (adj. comp.; °superl. flestr): more, most

[7] flestra dáða: so all others, flestar dáðir Bb(112rb)

notes

[7] flestra dáða ‘in most deeds’: This, the ÓT reading, provides a gen. pl. governed by frár ‘swift (in)’; the Bb(112rb) reading, nom./acc. pl. flestar dáðir, does not fit the syntax.

Close

dáða ‘deeds’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed

[7] flestra dáða: so all others, flestar dáðir Bb(112rb)

notes

[7] flestra dáða ‘in most deeds’: This, the ÓT reading, provides a gen. pl. governed by frár ‘swift (in)’; the Bb(112rb) reading, nom./acc. pl. flestar dáðir, does not fit the syntax.

Close

at ‘across’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[8] at: á all others

notes

[8] at ‘across’: The alternative á ‘on’ in ÓT has approximately the same meaning. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) again prefers the reading from Bb(112rb) here.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Óláfr, when his men were rowing along the coast, would sometimes walk on the oars overboard while juggling with short-swords.

Óláfr’s exceptional dexterity is also the subject of Anon Ól 1.  — [3]: Line 3 in ÓT forms an alternative warrior-kenning which is also feasible: geymirunna gunnelds ‘guarding trees of the battle-fire [SWORD > WARRIORS]’.

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