skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

HSt Rst 2I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 898.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
123

Vegmildr ‘The honour-generous’

vegmildr (adj.): [honour-generous]

kennings

Vegmildr vǫrðr víðrar foldar
‘The honour-generous guardian of vast territory ’
   = RULER = Óláfr

The honour-generous guardian of vast territory → RULER = Óláfr
Close

víðrar ‘of vast’

víðr (adj.): far

[1] víðrar: vígrar Bb(16ra), vígðrar Flat

kennings

Vegmildr vǫrðr víðrar foldar
‘The honour-generous guardian of vast territory ’
   = RULER = Óláfr

The honour-generous guardian of vast territory → RULER = Óláfr
Close

foldar ‘territory’

fold (noun f.): land

kennings

Vegmildr vǫrðr víðrar foldar
‘The honour-generous guardian of vast territory ’
   = RULER = Óláfr

The honour-generous guardian of vast territory → RULER = Óláfr
Close

vǫrðr ‘guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

[2] vǫrðr: so all others, vǫrð Bb(111va)

kennings

Vegmildr vǫrðr víðrar foldar
‘The honour-generous guardian of vast territory ’
   = RULER = Óláfr

The honour-generous guardian of vast territory → RULER = Óláfr
Close

þá ‘was’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[2] þá fóstr ‘was fostered’: Lit. ‘received fostering’. According to tradition (e.g. De antiquitate regum norwagiensium, MHN 13; HN, MHN 113; Ágr, ÍF 29, 20-1; ÓTOdd, ÍF 25, 162-6; Fsk, ÍF 29, 141; Hkr, ÍF 26, 232), Óláfr was fostered as a youth by King Valdamarr in Garðar; cf. also HSt Frag 1 and Anon Óldr 3. Valdamarr is identified with the Russian prince Vladimir (r. c. 970-1015; Pritsak 1993, 556; Franklin and Shephard 1996, 151-80). Doubts about the tradition have been expressed: see Introduction to HSt Frag 1.

Close

fóstr ‘fostered’

fóstr (noun n.): foster-

notes

[2] þá fóstr ‘was fostered’: Lit. ‘received fostering’. According to tradition (e.g. De antiquitate regum norwagiensium, MHN 13; HN, MHN 113; Ágr, ÍF 29, 20-1; ÓTOdd, ÍF 25, 162-6; Fsk, ÍF 29, 141; Hkr, ÍF 26, 232), Óláfr was fostered as a youth by King Valdamarr in Garðar; cf. also HSt Frag 1 and Anon Óldr 3. Valdamarr is identified with the Russian prince Vladimir (r. c. 970-1015; Pritsak 1993, 556; Franklin and Shephard 1996, 151-80). Doubts about the tradition have been expressed: see Introduction to HSt Frag 1.

Close

Gǫrðum ‘Russia’

Garðar (noun m.): Russia

Close

vell ‘the gold’

vell (noun n.): gold < vellbjóðr (noun m.): [gold-offerer]

kennings

vellbjóðr,
‘the gold-offerer, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the gold-offerer, → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bjóðr ‘offerer’

2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < vellbjóðr (noun m.): [gold-offerer]

kennings

vellbjóðr,
‘the gold-offerer, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the gold-offerer, → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vísar ‘renowned’

1. víss (adj.): wise, certain(ly)

[3] vísar: vísa 61, 62, víða 53, 54, Bb(16ra)

notes

[3] vísar ‘renowned’: The sense ‘renowned, well-known, certain’ is assumed here (cf. LP: víss 2; Fritzner: víss 3); ‘wise’ is also possible. The variant vísa is also possible. It could be read as the gen. sg. of vísi ‘prince, leader’, hence ‘princely’, qualifying dáðir ‘deeds’ (so Kock, NN §1168). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) also reads vísa, taking it with þá fóstr, hence ‘received fostering from the king, was fostered by the king’, but this is unnecessarily awkward, producing a tripartite l. 3.

Close

hæst ‘the greatest’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[4] hæst: ‘hærst’ 61, hæstr 53, 54, Bb(16ra)

notes

[4] gekk hæst ‘was greatest’: Lit. ‘went highest’: The ÓT reading adj. hæstr (adopted in Skj B, LP: 2. ganga 13 and Skald) is less convincing than adv. hæst in conjunction with gekk, lit. ‘went’.

Close

gekk ‘was’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

notes

[4] gekk hæst ‘was greatest’: Lit. ‘went highest’: The ÓT reading adj. hæstr (adopted in Skj B, LP: 2. ganga 13 and Skald) is less convincing than adv. hæst in conjunction with gekk, lit. ‘went’.

Close

Blik ‘of the gleam’

blik (noun n.): gleam < blikrunnr (noun m.)

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Blik ‘of the gleam’

blik (noun n.): gleam < blikrunnr (noun m.)

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

runnr ‘The tree’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree < blikrunnr (noun m.)

[5] ‑runnr: ‑rauðr all others

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[5] -runnr ‘tree’: The ÓT mss have -rauðr ‘red’, which is nonsensical in the context, but may be a corruption of ruðr, an alternative form of runnr ‘tree’. However, the -nn- form is established in st. 1/5 by the skothending runn- : linn-.

Close

brigða ‘extremely’

1. brigða (adv.): extremely

notes

[5] brigða ‘extremely’: Gen. pl. of brigð f. ‘change, breaking, breach’, used as an intensifying adv.

Close

* ‘’

(non-lexical)

[6] * þeim es átti: ‘hann þeíms þęt atti’ Bb(111va), hann þeims átti 61, 53, hann þeim sem hann átti 54, hann því sem hann átti Bb(16ra), hann þeims átta 62, fjǫgur ok átta Flat

notes

[6] * þeim ..., es átti ‘the ... which he owned’: The range of variants reflects scribal uncertainty, and the role of ms. hann ‘he/him’ (deleted in the Text above) is unclear. Hann is assumed here to be a scribal addition to the verb réð ‘commanded’. Additional, extrametrical pronouns are frequent in the mss and often removed as a routine part of normalisation. For the remainder of the line various possibilities emerge. (a) Þeim, es átti ‘the (fleet) which he owned’ is adopted here (cf. Fms 12, 35, which retains hann), giving a statement that Óláfr commanded the ships he owned. (b) Kock (NN §1169) instead reads þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, where the understood ‘it’ refers to brigða miklum ... stóli skipa ‘extremely large fleet of ships’ (ll. 5, 8), and the owner is Valdamarr (Vladimir; see Note to l. 2 above). Although this gives good sense, it produces an unmetrical line, since if þeim belonged to the rel. clause, forming þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, es would cliticize onto the fully stressed demonstrative þeim which precedes it, giving þeims, and the line would have only five rather than the necessary six metrical positions. (c) See Note to l. 8, interpretation (b), for a different approach.

Close

þeim ‘the’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[6] * þeim es átti: ‘hann þeíms þęt atti’ Bb(111va), hann þeims átti 61, 53, hann þeim sem hann átti 54, hann því sem hann átti Bb(16ra), hann þeims átta 62, fjǫgur ok átta Flat

notes

[6] * þeim ..., es átti ‘the ... which he owned’: The range of variants reflects scribal uncertainty, and the role of ms. hann ‘he/him’ (deleted in the Text above) is unclear. Hann is assumed here to be a scribal addition to the verb réð ‘commanded’. Additional, extrametrical pronouns are frequent in the mss and often removed as a routine part of normalisation. For the remainder of the line various possibilities emerge. (a) Þeim, es átti ‘the (fleet) which he owned’ is adopted here (cf. Fms 12, 35, which retains hann), giving a statement that Óláfr commanded the ships he owned. (b) Kock (NN §1169) instead reads þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, where the understood ‘it’ refers to brigða miklum ... stóli skipa ‘extremely large fleet of ships’ (ll. 5, 8), and the owner is Valdamarr (Vladimir; see Note to l. 2 above). Although this gives good sense, it produces an unmetrical line, since if þeim belonged to the rel. clause, forming þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, es would cliticize onto the fully stressed demonstrative þeim which precedes it, giving þeims, and the line would have only five rather than the necessary six metrical positions. (c) See Note to l. 8, interpretation (b), for a different approach.

Close

es ‘which’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] * þeim es átti: ‘hann þeíms þęt atti’ Bb(111va), hann þeims átti 61, 53, hann þeim sem hann átti 54, hann því sem hann átti Bb(16ra), hann þeims átta 62, fjǫgur ok átta Flat

notes

[6] * þeim ..., es átti ‘the ... which he owned’: The range of variants reflects scribal uncertainty, and the role of ms. hann ‘he/him’ (deleted in the Text above) is unclear. Hann is assumed here to be a scribal addition to the verb réð ‘commanded’. Additional, extrametrical pronouns are frequent in the mss and often removed as a routine part of normalisation. For the remainder of the line various possibilities emerge. (a) Þeim, es átti ‘the (fleet) which he owned’ is adopted here (cf. Fms 12, 35, which retains hann), giving a statement that Óláfr commanded the ships he owned. (b) Kock (NN §1169) instead reads þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, where the understood ‘it’ refers to brigða miklum ... stóli skipa ‘extremely large fleet of ships’ (ll. 5, 8), and the owner is Valdamarr (Vladimir; see Note to l. 2 above). Although this gives good sense, it produces an unmetrical line, since if þeim belonged to the rel. clause, forming þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, es would cliticize onto the fully stressed demonstrative þeim which precedes it, giving þeims, and the line would have only five rather than the necessary six metrical positions. (c) See Note to l. 8, interpretation (b), for a different approach.

Close

átti ‘he owned’

2. eiga (verb; °á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt): own, have

[6] * þeim es átti: ‘hann þeíms þęt atti’ Bb(111va), hann þeims átti 61, 53, hann þeim sem hann átti 54, hann því sem hann átti Bb(16ra), hann þeims átta 62, fjǫgur ok átta Flat

notes

[6] * þeim ..., es átti ‘the ... which he owned’: The range of variants reflects scribal uncertainty, and the role of ms. hann ‘he/him’ (deleted in the Text above) is unclear. Hann is assumed here to be a scribal addition to the verb réð ‘commanded’. Additional, extrametrical pronouns are frequent in the mss and often removed as a routine part of normalisation. For the remainder of the line various possibilities emerge. (a) Þeim, es átti ‘the (fleet) which he owned’ is adopted here (cf. Fms 12, 35, which retains hann), giving a statement that Óláfr commanded the ships he owned. (b) Kock (NN §1169) instead reads þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, where the understood ‘it’ refers to brigða miklum ... stóli skipa ‘extremely large fleet of ships’ (ll. 5, 8), and the owner is Valdamarr (Vladimir; see Note to l. 2 above). Although this gives good sense, it produces an unmetrical line, since if þeim belonged to the rel. clause, forming þeim es átti ‘for the one who owned [it]’, es would cliticize onto the fully stressed demonstrative þeim which precedes it, giving þeims, and the line would have only five rather than the necessary six metrical positions. (c) See Note to l. 8, interpretation (b), for a different approach.

Close

all ‘most’

all- ((prefix)): very < allprúðr (adj.)

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

Close

prútt ‘excellently’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < allprúðr (adj.)

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62;    ‑prútt: so 61, 53, 54, Bb(16ra), ‘‑pruttr’ Bb(111va), ‑ríkt Flat

Close

éla ‘of the storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

éla ‘of the storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

éla ‘of the storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Þróttar ‘of Þróttr’

2. Þróttr (noun m.): Þróttr

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Þróttar ‘of Þróttr’

2. Þróttr (noun m.): Þróttr

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Þróttar ‘of Þróttr’

2. Þróttr (noun m.): Þróttr

[7] allprútt éla Þróttar: om. 62

kennings

Þróttar éla blikrunnr,
‘gleam-tree of the storms of Þróttr’
   = WARRIOR

the storms of Þróttr, → BATTLES
the gleam of BATTLES → SWORD
The tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Óláfr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

Close

skipa ‘of ships’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

notes

[8] stóli skipa ‘fleet of ships’: (a) The same phrase occurs in Bjbp Jóms 16/4. Stóll ‘fleet’ is assumed to be an adoption from Gk (LP: 2. stóll; AEW: stóll 3). (b) Skipa is taken by Finnur Jónsson (1893b and Skj B) as the verb ‘to man’, hence réð ... stóli, þeims hann, Óláfr, átti skipa allprútt ‘(the warrior) commanded a fleet which he, Óláfr, had to man most excellently’. This obviates the problem with hann (see Note to l. 6), but it breaks up the phrase skipa stóli and assumes a complex word order, with elements of the subordinate þeims-clause in ll. 6, 7 and 8.

Close

stóli ‘fleet’

2. stóli (noun m.; °-a): [fleet]

notes

[8] stóli skipa ‘fleet of ships’: (a) The same phrase occurs in Bjbp Jóms 16/4. Stóll ‘fleet’ is assumed to be an adoption from Gk (LP: 2. stóll; AEW: stóll 3). (b) Skipa is taken by Finnur Jónsson (1893b and Skj B) as the verb ‘to man’, hence réð ... stóli, þeims hann, Óláfr, átti skipa allprútt ‘(the warrior) commanded a fleet which he, Óláfr, had to man most excellently’. This obviates the problem with hann (see Note to l. 6), but it breaks up the phrase skipa stóli and assumes a complex word order, with elements of the subordinate þeims-clause in ll. 6, 7 and 8.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓT, Óláfr decides to leave Garðar (Russia) and go back to Norway. The stanza is cited for its account of Óláfr’s upbringing in Garðar. 

[5]: This odd line, like several more in Rst, has aðalhending instead of skothending; see Introduction.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.