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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 19I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 19’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 919.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
181920

Stǫng ‘pole’

stǫng (noun f.; °stangar, dat. -u; stangir/stengr): pole

[1] Stǫng: so 53, Flat, strǫng Bb(112ra), 54, 325VIII 2 b, ‘(Im)song’(?) Bb(99va)

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reið ‘rode high’

1. ríða (verb): ride

[1] reið: so 53, Flat, varð Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(99va), 325VIII 2 b

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en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

notes

[1] en ‘and’: Kock (Skald and NN §1180) reads adv. enn ‘further’, but the word order favours conj. en ‘and, but’.

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sungu ‘sang’

syngja (verb): sing

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sterk ‘The power’

sterkr (adj.): strong < sterkligr (adj.): strong

[2] sterklig: ‘[…]erklig’ 325VIII 2 b

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lig ‘ful’

-ligr (adj.): -ly < sterkligr (adj.): strong

[2] sterklig: ‘[…]erklig’ 325VIII 2 b

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jǫfurs ‘of the prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

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merkis ‘of the standard’

1. merki (noun n.; °-s: -): banner, sign

[2] merkis: so Flat, merki Bb(112ra), 53, 54, Bb(99va), 325VIII 2 b

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gramr ‘the ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[3] gramr skaut gerðisk rimmu: ‘gram ok g[…] indinn gerdizt’ 325VIII 2 b;    gramr: grami Flat

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skaut ‘shot’

skjóta (verb): shoot

[3] gramr skaut gerðisk rimmu: ‘gram ok g[…] indinn gerdizt’ 325VIII 2 b

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gerðisk ‘proceeded’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[3] gramr skaut gerðisk rimmu: ‘gram ok g[…] indinn gerdizt’ 325VIII 2 b;    gerðisk: gjǫrði 53

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rimmu ‘of the battle’

rimma (noun f.; °-u): battle

[3] gramr skaut gerðisk rimmu: ‘gram ok g[…] indinn gerdizt’ 325VIII 2 b;    rimmu: snemma Flat

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um ‘around’

1. um (prep.): about, around

[4] um: á all others

notes

[4] um ‘around’: The ÓT mss have á ‘on’, which puts the focus on the battle taking place on, rather than around, Ormr inn langi.

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Orm ‘Ormr’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

[4] Orm inn: ‘orm(imn)’(?) 54

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Note to st. 18/2. Line 4 is identical with Hókr Eirfl 4/4, and st. 22/4, also containing the phrase Orm inn langa, is a further variant on the pattern seen in Hókr Eirfl 3/4, 5/8 and 8/4.

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inn ‘inn’

2. inn (art.): the

[4] Orm inn: ‘orm(imn)’(?) 54

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Note to st. 18/2. Line 4 is identical with Hókr Eirfl 4/4, and st. 22/4, also containing the phrase Orm inn langa, is a further variant on the pattern seen in Hókr Eirfl 3/4, 5/8 and 8/4.

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langa ‘langi (‘the Long Serpent’)’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

[4] langa: ‘[…]ga’ 325VIII 2 b

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Note to st. 18/2. Line 4 is identical with Hókr Eirfl 4/4, and st. 22/4, also containing the phrase Orm inn langa, is a further variant on the pattern seen in Hókr Eirfl 3/4, 5/8 and 8/4.

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Nýtr ‘The brave’

nýtr (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr): useful, able

notes

[5] nýtr ‘brave’: The adj. is related to njóta ‘use, enjoy’ (AEW: nýtr), and hence has the basic sense ‘useful’, with a variety of contextual applications. Applied here to the Norwegians in their spirited defence, ‘brave’ is appropriate (cf. brav, tapper, Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, whereas Skj B suggests dygtige ‘capable, skilled’).

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Nóregs ‘of Norway’

Noregr (noun m.): Norway

kennings

orðprúðs gætis Nóregs
‘of the famous guardian of Norway ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the famous guardian of Norway → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[5] gætis Nóregs ‘of the guardian of Norway [NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr]’: In kennings referring to Norwegian kings the determinant is normally gen. pl. of a regional ethnic name such as Hǫrðar ‘people of Hǫrðaland’ or Sygnir ‘people of Sogn’, but reference to territorial units rather than people is attested (Þjóð Har 2/7 gramr Upplanda ‘ruler of Opplandene’), as is reference to the whole of Norway rather than regions (e.g. Þhorn Harkv 5/3 dróttinn Norðmanna ‘lord of Norwegians’, Sturl Hákfl 7/2II valdr norrænar aldar ‘ruler of the Norwegian people’).

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gætis ‘guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

[5] gætis: ‘sæt(iss)’(?) 325VIII 2 b

kennings

orðprúðs gætis Nóregs
‘of the famous guardian of Norway ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the famous guardian of Norway → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[5] gætis Nóregs ‘of the guardian of Norway [NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr]’: In kennings referring to Norwegian kings the determinant is normally gen. pl. of a regional ethnic name such as Hǫrðar ‘people of Hǫrðaland’ or Sygnir ‘people of Sogn’, but reference to territorial units rather than people is attested (Þjóð Har 2/7 gramr Upplanda ‘ruler of Opplandene’), as is reference to the whole of Norway rather than regions (e.g. Þhorn Harkv 5/3 dróttinn Norðmanna ‘lord of Norwegians’, Sturl Hákfl 7/2II valdr norrænar aldar ‘ruler of the Norwegian people’).

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nær ‘far from’

nær (adv.): near, almost; when

notes

[6] vasa nær trauðr ‘was far from reluctant’: Lit. ‘was not nearly reluctant’.

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vasa ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[6] vasa nær trauðr ‘was far from reluctant’: Lit. ‘was not nearly reluctant’.

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trauðr ‘reluctant’

trauðr (adj.): reluctant

notes

[6] vasa nær trauðr ‘was far from reluctant’: Lit. ‘was not nearly reluctant’.

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særa ‘wound’

særa (verb): wound

[6] særa: ‘sæ[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

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orð ‘of the fam’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word < orðprúðr (adj.)

[7] orð‑: orðs Flat

kennings

orðprúðs gætis Nóregs
‘of the famous guardian of Norway ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the famous guardian of Norway → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[7] orðprúðs ‘famous’: Lit. ‘word-splendid’, hence either ‘famous’ (so Konráð Gíslason 1895-7) or possibly ‘eloquent’ (so Skj B).

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prúðs ‘ous’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < orðprúðr (adj.)

[7] ‑prúðs: so 53, Flat, ‑prúðr Bb(112ra), ‑prúð 54, Bb(99va), 325VIII 2 b

kennings

orðprúðs gætis Nóregs
‘of the famous guardian of Norway ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the famous guardian of Norway → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[7] orðprúðs ‘famous’: Lit. ‘word-splendid’, hence either ‘famous’ (so Konráð Gíslason 1895-7) or possibly ‘eloquent’ (so Skj B).

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Jóta ‘of the Jótar’

jóti (noun m.; °; -ar): one of the Jótar

[7] Jóta: sóta 325VIII 2 b

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Óláfr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[8] Óláfr: so 54, Bb(99va), Óláf Bb(112ra), 325VIII 2 b, Flat, ‘Ol’ 53

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veg ‘the path’

1. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u): way, path, side

[8] veg: vegs 325VIII 2 b

kennings

veg sólar …
‘the path of the sun … ’
   = SKY

the path of the sun … → SKY
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sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

veg sólar …
‘the path of the sun … ’
   = SKY

the path of the sun … → SKY
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

There is fierce fighting as Óláfr and his men fend off Danish attacks on their ships.

[1-2]: Most mss read strǫng varð stôlin sungu | sterklig jǫfurs merki, with the exceptions shown in the Readings above. Merki ‘standard’, as a n. noun, could be sg. or pl., but varð ‘became’ can only be sg. while the adj. strǫng ‘severe, strong’ can only be pl. Strǫng varð is therefore not viable grammatically, and it is necessary to adopt the minority readings stǫng reið and merkis, hence ‘the pole of the standard rode high’. This interpretation essentially agrees with that of Konráð Gíslason (1895-7), Skj B and Skald. — [8]: For this line of the refrain, see st. 9/8 and Note.

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