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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 17I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 17’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 917.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
161718

Grár ‘The grey’

grár (adj.; °gráan/grán): grey

[1] Grár: so 53, Flat, gjá Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(100ra)

kennings

Grár trǫllmarr
‘The grey troll-woman’s steed ’
   = WOLF

The grey troll-woman’s steed → WOLF
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gerðu ‘engaged in’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[1] gerðu: so 54, Bb(100ra), gjǫrði Bb(112ra), 53, gerðisk Flat

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drífu ‘a snow-storm’

1. drífa (noun f.; °-u): snow-storm

[1] drífu: drífa Flat

kennings

drífu randa;
‘a snow-storm of shields; ’
   = BATTLE

a snow-storm of shields; → BATTLE
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við ‘against’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[2] við: ‘vít’ Flat

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randa ‘of shields’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

drífu randa;
‘a snow-storm of shields; ’
   = BATTLE

a snow-storm of shields; → BATTLE
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trǫll ‘troll-woman’s’

troll (noun n.; °-s; -): troll < trollmarr (noun m.): [troll-woman steed]

[3] trǫllmarr: so 53, ‘trollz matr’ Bb(112ra), ‘traullan’ 54, Bb(100ra), ‘tro᷎ll maarr’ Flat

kennings

Grár trǫllmarr
‘The grey troll-woman’s steed ’
   = WOLF

The grey troll-woman’s steed → WOLF

notes

[3] trǫllmarr ‘troll-woman’s steed [WOLF]’: Trǫll can refer to both male and female trolls (LP: troll, trǫll), but a troll-woman or giantess is indicated here. The wolf-kenning follows a common pattern whose mythological prototype is the mount of the giantess Hyrrokkin in the myth of Baldr’s funeral (see Meissner 124-5; SnE 2005, 46).

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marr ‘steed’

2. marr (noun m.): horse < trollmarr (noun m.): [troll-woman steed]

[3] trǫllmarr: so 53, ‘trollz matr’ Bb(112ra), ‘traullan’ 54, Bb(100ra), ‘tro᷎ll maarr’ Flat

kennings

Grár trǫllmarr
‘The grey troll-woman’s steed ’
   = WOLF

The grey troll-woman’s steed → WOLF

notes

[3] trǫllmarr ‘troll-woman’s steed [WOLF]’: Trǫll can refer to both male and female trolls (LP: troll, trǫll), but a troll-woman or giantess is indicated here. The wolf-kenning follows a common pattern whose mythological prototype is the mount of the giantess Hyrrokkin in the myth of Baldr’s funeral (see Meissner 124-5; SnE 2005, 46).

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trýni ‘snout’

trýni (noun n.): snout

[3] trýni: ‘trut var’ 54, trúr var Bb(100ra)

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sollin ‘swollen’

1. svella (verb): swell

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tveir ‘the two’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

notes

[4] tveir nafnar ‘the two namesakes’: Óláfr Tryggvason and Óláfr sœnski ‘the Swede’ Eiríksson (r. c. 995-c. 1021).

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nafnar ‘namesakes’

nafni (noun m.; °-a; -ar): namesake

notes

[4] tveir nafnar ‘the two namesakes’: Óláfr Tryggvason and Óláfr sœnski ‘the Swede’ Eiríksson (r. c. 995-c. 1021).

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hræ ‘corpses’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion

[4] hræ: so 53, Flat, þar Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(100ra)

notes

[4] hræ ‘corpses’: This, the reading of 53 and Flat, provides the necessary object for reif ‘tore’. The alternative reading, þar ‘there’, would necessitate the implausible assumption that sollin ‘swollen’ is substantival, ‘swollen ones’ hence ‘corpses’.

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jafnan ‘steadily’

jafnan (adv.): always

notes

[4] jafnan ‘steadily’: Here taken with reif ‘tore’, following Kock (NN §1178), whereas Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) read it with gall ‘resounded’.

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Sœnskr ‘The Swedish’

sœnskr (adj.): Swedish

[5] Sœnskr: sœnski 54

notes

[5] sœnskr herr þorrinn sigri ‘the Swedish army [was] deprived of victory’: The clause lacks a verb, and ‘was’ seems to be implied. Mss 54 and Bb(100ra) have vas ‘was’, but this results in too many syllables. See also Note to l. 7, flýðu.

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herr ‘army’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host

notes

[5] sœnskr herr þorrinn sigri ‘the Swedish army [was] deprived of victory’: The clause lacks a verb, and ‘was’ seems to be implied. Mss 54 and Bb(100ra) have vas ‘was’, but this results in too many syllables. See also Note to l. 7, flýðu.

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sigri ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory

[5] sigri: var sigri 54, Bb(100ra)

notes

[5] sœnskr herr þorrinn sigri ‘the Swedish army [was] deprived of victory’: The clause lacks a verb, and ‘was’ seems to be implied. Mss 54 and Bb(100ra) have vas ‘was’, but this results in too many syllables. See also Note to l. 7, flýðu.

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þorrinn ‘deprived’

1. þverra (verb): diminish

notes

[5] sœnskr herr þorrinn sigri ‘the Swedish army [was] deprived of victory’: The clause lacks a verb, and ‘was’ seems to be implied. Mss 54 and Bb(100ra) have vas ‘was’, but this results in too many syllables. See also Note to l. 7, flýðu.

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fló ‘flew’

fljúga (verb): fly

[6] fló: blá 54, Bb(100ra)

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hríð ‘the onslaught’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

notes

[7] hríð ‘the onslaught’: See Note to Edáð Banddr 6/2, where the predicate is also óx ‘grew’.

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flýðu ‘fled’

flýja (verb): to flee, take flight

[7] flýðu: so 53, Bb(100ra), ‘flvdę’ Bb(112ra), flýði 54, Flat

notes

[7] flýðu ‘fled’: The reading is taken from 53 and Bb(100ra), whereas Bb(112ra), 54 and Flat all have readings that should probably be normalised as sg. flýði ‘fled’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (NN §1179) read flýði and link it to sœnskr herr, hence Sœnskr herr flýði, þorrinn sigri ‘the Swedish army fled, deprived of victory’. However, this relies on an emendation of hǫlðar (nom. pl.) ‘men’ to hǫlða (acc. pl.), which becomes the object to beit ‘bit’, and furthermore, it disturbs the patterning of ll. 6-7, which approximate to the so-called sextánmælt ‘sixteen-times spoken’ characterized by two clauses per line (cf. SnSt Ht 9III, and Context and Note; SnE 2007, 9).

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Hollr ‘Faithful’

hollr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): loyal

[8] Hollr: ‘holl’ all

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ǫllu ‘all things’

allr (adj.): all

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza is quoted to verify the fierceness of the battle between Óláfr Tryggvason and Óláfr sœnski.

[8]: For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8. Hollr ‘faithful’ is an emendation here, but it is the reading of Bb(111vb) in st. 11/8.

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