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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 14I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 912.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
131415

Morð ‘of the battle’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðlinnr (noun m.)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Morð ‘of the battle’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðlinnr (noun m.)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

linns ‘snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake < morðlinnr (noun m.)

[1] ‑linns: so 61, 53, 54, Flat, bands Bb(111vb), lindr or linds Bb(91vb)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1] -linns ‘-snake’: The ÓT reading is adopted here since it yields a standard sword-kenning (Meissner 154), and although it produces aðalhending in an odd line, such lines are well attested in Rst (see Introduction). The Bb(111vb) reading bands (ms. ‘bandz’) makes no sense in context and may be a corruption of brandr ‘flame, fire’, which also occurs in sword-kennings (Meissner 150).

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linns ‘snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake < morðlinnr (noun m.)

[1] ‑linns: so 61, 53, 54, Flat, bands Bb(111vb), lindr or linds Bb(91vb)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1] -linns ‘-snake’: The ÓT reading is adopted here since it yields a standard sword-kenning (Meissner 154), and although it produces aðalhending in an odd line, such lines are well attested in Rst (see Introduction). The Bb(111vb) reading bands (ms. ‘bandz’) makes no sense in context and may be a corruption of brandr ‘flame, fire’, which also occurs in sword-kennings (Meissner 150).

Close

móð ‘The courage’

1. móðr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-): courage < móðþrútinn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

þrútinn ‘swollen’

þrútinn (adj./verb p.p.): swollen < móðþrútinn (adj./verb p.p.)

[2] ‑þrútinn: ‘‑(b)rutin’(?) 53

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

svall ‘swelled’

1. svella (verb): swell

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fellu ‘crashed’

falla (verb): fall

Close

hvessi ‘whetting’

hvessir (noun m.): [inciter, whetting] < hvessimeiðr (noun m.)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

meiðr ‘pole’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree < hvessimeiðr (noun m.)

kennings

Móðþrútinn hvessimeiðr morðlinns
‘The courage-swollen whetting pole of the battle-snake ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-snake → SWORD
The courage-swollen whetting pole of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

Gyllt ‘the gilded’

gylltr (adj.): gilded

[5] Gyllt: so 61, Bb(91vb), Flat, ‘gullt’ Bb(111vb), 53, 54

Close

gnǫpðu ‘bent forward’

gnapa (verb): bend forward, tower

Close

skoltar ‘foreheads’

skoltr (noun m.; °; -ar): [foreheads]

[5] skoltar: so 61, Flat, ‘skalptar’ Bb(111vb), 54, Bb(91vb), skolptar 53

notes

[5] skoltar ‘foreheads’: This, the younger form of skolptr (LP: skolptr), is indicated by the skothending on gyllt. The word must refer to the dragon heads or other figure-heads on viking ships.

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gunn ‘The battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnfíkinn (adj.)

kennings

Gunnfíkinn herrunnr
‘The battle-eager army-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

The battle-eager army-tree → WARRIOR
Close

fíkinn ‘eager’

fíkinn (adj.): greedy < gunnfíkinn (adj.)

[6] ‑fíkinn: so 61, 53, Flat, ‘‑filínn’ Bb(111vb), 54, Bb(91vb)

kennings

Gunnfíkinn herrunnr
‘The battle-eager army-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

The battle-eager army-tree → WARRIOR
Close

blíkja ‘gleam’

blíkja (verb): gleam, glisten

[6] blíkja: so 61, 53, Flat, blikra Bb(111vb), 54, Bb(91vb)

notes

[6] blíkja ‘gleam’: This, the reading of some ÓT mss, is preferable in terms of sense and rhyme to the rare blikra, which could mean ‘blink’ (CVC: blikra) or (impersonal) ‘quiver (from fright)’ (ONP: blikra).

Close

her ‘army’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < hjalmrunnr (noun m.): [helmet-tree]

kennings

Gunnfíkinn herrunnr
‘The battle-eager army-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

The battle-eager army-tree → WARRIOR
Close

runnr ‘tree’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree < hjalmrunnr (noun m.): [helmet-tree]

kennings

Gunnfíkinn herrunnr
‘The battle-eager army-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

The battle-eager army-tree → WARRIOR
Close

Hollr ‘Faithful’

hollr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): loyal

[8] Hollr: hǫll all others

Close

ǫllu ‘all things’

allr (adj.): all

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza concludes a brief passage on the king’s seaborne expeditions during the summers.

[8]: For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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