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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 11I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 909.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
101112

éla ‘of the storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

éla ‘of the storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

skyndir ‘hastener’

skyndir (noun m.; °dat. -): hastener

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

ítr ‘splendid’

ítr (adj.): glorious

Close

gollmildr ‘The gold-generous’

gullmildr (adj.): [gold-generous]

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR
Close

Grœnaveldi ‘Greenland’

Grœnaveldi (noun n.): [Greenland]

notes

[3] Grœnaveldi ‘Greenland’: Lit. ‘Green realm’, a play on the usual name Grœn(a)land.

Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

Gǫndul (noun f.): [Gǫndul, Göndul]

[4] Gǫndlar: ‘gvnnlar’ Bb

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

Gǫndul (noun f.): [Gǫndul, Göndul]

[4] Gǫndlar: ‘gvnnlar’ Bb

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

Gǫndul (noun f.): [Gǫndul, Göndul]

[4] Gǫndlar: ‘gvnnlar’ Bb

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

þey*s ‘of the thawing wind’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

[4] þey*s: ‘þeyrs’ Bb

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

þey*s ‘of the thawing wind’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

[4] þey*s: ‘þeyrs’ Bb

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

þey*s ‘of the thawing wind’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

[4] þey*s: ‘þeyrs’ Bb

kennings

Gollmildr skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar,
‘The gold-generous hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIOR

the thawing wind of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the storms of the BATTLE → ARROWS
The gold-generous hastener of ARROWS → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 4] skyndir éla þey*s Gǫndlar ‘hastener of the storms of the thawing wind of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [BATTLE > ARROWS > WARRIOR]’: (a) The minor emendation of þeyrs to þeys produces an acceptable kenning structure, with þeys Gǫndlar ‘of the thawing wind of Gǫndul [BATTLE]’ as the determinant of a kenning for ‘arrows’ or ‘arrow-showers’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 67 for kennings for missiles based on terms referring to precipitation such as hagl ‘hail’). (b) Since þeyr ‘thawing wind’ and él ‘storm’ can both function as the base-word of a battle-kenning, this kenning could be seen as overloaded, and Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) seems to regard éla ‘storms’ as a redundant element in the battle-kenning éla Gǫndlar þeys ‘the storms of Gǫndul’s thawing wind’ rather than being an independent kenning element. There is a possible parallel to this in the use of hríð ‘storm’ in st. 34/6, 7 (see Note).

Close

Eyjar ‘the Isles [Orkney]’

1. ey (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar): island

notes

[4] Eyjar ‘the Isles’: That Orkney is meant is suggested by external historical sources (cited by Konráð Gíslason 1895-7), and the reference to Shetland in l. 5; Eyjar also refers to Orkney, e.g., in TorfE Lv 2/3, Anon Óldr 12/2.

Close

Hand ‘most’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand < handvíss (adj.): [most certainly]

notes

[5] handvíst ‘most certainly’: Lit. ‘hand certainly’, a cpd adj. used adverbially. Although rare, it occurs in Sjórs Lv 3/6II.

Close

víst ‘certainly’

1. víss (adj.): wise, certain(ly) < handvíss (adj.): [most certainly]

notes

[5] handvíst ‘most certainly’: Lit. ‘hand certainly’, a cpd adj. used adverbially. Although rare, it occurs in Sjórs Lv 3/6II.

Close

Hjalta ‘of the Shetlanders’

Hjaltr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): Shetlander

kennings

grundar Hjalta.
‘of the land of the Shetlanders. ’
   = Shetland

the land of the Shetlanders. → Shetland
Close

grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

grundar Hjalta.
‘of the land of the Shetlanders. ’
   = Shetland

the land of the Shetlanders. → Shetland
Close

hann ‘He’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[6, 7] hann, hilmir ‘he, the ruler’: Apposition is relatively common in Rst, and the use of the pron. hann in apposition is paralleled in the refrain (Hann, Óláfr): see Note to st. 9/8.

Close

sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

Close

Nóregs ‘of Norway’

Noregr (noun m.): Norway

Close

manna ‘of the people’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

Close

hilmir ‘the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

notes

[6, 7] hann, hilmir ‘he, the ruler’: Apposition is relatively common in Rst, and the use of the pron. hann in apposition is paralleled in the refrain (Hann, Óláfr): see Note to st. 9/8.

Close

ǫllu ‘all things’

allr (adj.): all

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[8]: For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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