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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Kálf Kátr 12VII

Kirsten Wolf (ed.) 2007, ‘Kálfr Hallsson, Kátrínardrápa 12’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 939.

Kálfr HallssonKátrínardrápa
111213

hefi ‘have’

hafa (verb): have

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ekki ‘neither’

2. ekki (adv.): not

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trúi ‘will believe’

2. trúa (verb): to believe (in)

[2] trúi: so 399a‑bˣ, 920ˣ, trú 713

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hvítra ‘of shining’

hvítr (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): white

kennings

reiðr hristir hvítra hjalta
‘the angry shaker of shining hilts ’
   = WARRIOR

the angry shaker of shining hilts → WARRIOR
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hjalta ‘hilts’

hjalt (noun n.; °; *-): hilt

kennings

reiðr hristir hvítra hjalta
‘the angry shaker of shining hilts ’
   = WARRIOR

the angry shaker of shining hilts → WARRIOR
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hristir ‘shaker’

hristir (noun m.): shaker

kennings

reiðr hristir hvítra hjalta
‘the angry shaker of shining hilts ’
   = WARRIOR

the angry shaker of shining hilts → WARRIOR
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reiðr ‘the angry’

4. reiðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): angry

kennings

reiðr hristir hvítra hjalta
‘the angry shaker of shining hilts ’
   = WARRIOR

the angry shaker of shining hilts → WARRIOR
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fljóðið ‘woman’

fljóð (noun n.): woman

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valdi ‘chose’

velja (verb): choose

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fróðra ‘wise’

fróðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): wise

[5] fróðra hölda: ‘fr[...]’ 713, ‘Fru [...]lda’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘Fr ... da’ 920ˣ

notes

[5] fróðra hölda (gen. pl.) ‘wise men’: Sperber and Kock (Skald; NN §2960) suggest fróðra hölda; Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) suggests Freyju hölda to create the kenning Freyju fannar lófa ‘Freyja of the snowdrift of the palm [SILVER > WOMAN]’. Here eigandi ‘owner’ (l. 7) is construed with fannar lófa ‘of the snowdrift of the palm [of the hand]’ (l. 6) to give a kenning for a man, ‘the snowdrift of the palm’ being silver. Although eigandi is rare in kennings (Meissner, 337), this interpretation is favoured by the fact that the kenning eigendur jötna róms ‘owners of the speech of giants [GOLD > PEOPLE]’ occurs in st. 50/5-6 and is closely matched by ýtar jötna róms ‘launchers of the speech of giants [GOLD > GENEROUS MEN]’ in 40/5-6.

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hölda ‘men’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

[5] fróðra hölda: ‘fr[...]’ 713, ‘Fru [...]lda’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘Fr ... da’ 920ˣ

notes

[5] fróðra hölda (gen. pl.) ‘wise men’: Sperber and Kock (Skald; NN §2960) suggest fróðra hölda; Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) suggests Freyju hölda to create the kenning Freyju fannar lófa ‘Freyja of the snowdrift of the palm [SILVER > WOMAN]’. Here eigandi ‘owner’ (l. 7) is construed with fannar lófa ‘of the snowdrift of the palm [of the hand]’ (l. 6) to give a kenning for a man, ‘the snowdrift of the palm’ being silver. Although eigandi is rare in kennings (Meissner, 337), this interpretation is favoured by the fact that the kenning eigendur jötna róms ‘owners of the speech of giants [GOLD > PEOPLE]’ occurs in st. 50/5-6 and is closely matched by ýtar jötna róms ‘launchers of the speech of giants [GOLD > GENEROUS MEN]’ in 40/5-6.

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fannar ‘of the snowdrift’

fǫnn (noun f.): snow-drift

kennings

Eigandi fannar lófa
‘The owner of the snowdrift of the palm ’
   = MAN

the snowdrift of the palm → SILVER
The owner of the SILVER → MAN
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fannar ‘of the snowdrift’

fǫnn (noun f.): snow-drift

kennings

Eigandi fannar lófa
‘The owner of the snowdrift of the palm ’
   = MAN

the snowdrift of the palm → SILVER
The owner of the SILVER → MAN
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lófa ‘of the palm’

lófi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): palm of hand

kennings

Eigandi fannar lófa
‘The owner of the snowdrift of the palm ’
   = MAN

the snowdrift of the palm → SILVER
The owner of the SILVER → MAN
Close

lófa ‘of the palm’

lófi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): palm of hand

kennings

Eigandi fannar lófa
‘The owner of the snowdrift of the palm ’
   = MAN

the snowdrift of the palm → SILVER
The owner of the SILVER → MAN
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eigandi ‘The owner’

eigandi (noun m.; °-a; eigendr/eigandar(DN VI (1328) 148¹¹) (nom. sg. æighander DN VII (*13[27-1328]›DonVar 1—) 142²²)): [owner, owners]

kennings

Eigandi fannar lófa
‘The owner of the snowdrift of the palm ’
   = MAN

the snowdrift of the palm → SILVER
The owner of the SILVER → MAN
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ambátt ‘handmaid’

ambátt (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar (ambottor EiðKrA 391²²)): handmaid

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
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fræga ‘the famous’

frægr (adj.; °-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str): famous, renowned

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
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eingla ‘of angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN

notes

[8] þeingils dýrðar eingla ‘of the king of the glory of angels’: This is the emendation suggested by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B); Kock (Skald) has þengils háleits dýrðar ‘of the king of sublime glory’. There is at least one word missing in l. 8, and the kenning suggested here (‘of the king of the glory of angels’) may have had either an adj. or an additional noun element.

Close

eingla ‘of angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN

notes

[8] þeingils dýrðar eingla ‘of the king of the glory of angels’: This is the emendation suggested by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B); Kock (Skald) has þengils háleits dýrðar ‘of the king of sublime glory’. There is at least one word missing in l. 8, and the kenning suggested here (‘of the king of the glory of angels’) may have had either an adj. or an additional noun element.

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dýrðar ‘of the glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

[8] dýrðar þeingils: ‘dyrd[...]ls’ 713, ‘dyrð [...] lds’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘dyrð [...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN

notes

[8] þeingils dýrðar eingla ‘of the king of the glory of angels’: This is the emendation suggested by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B); Kock (Skald) has þengils háleits dýrðar ‘of the king of sublime glory’. There is at least one word missing in l. 8, and the kenning suggested here (‘of the king of the glory of angels’) may have had either an adj. or an additional noun element.

Close

dýrðar ‘of the glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

[8] dýrðar þeingils: ‘dyrd[...]ls’ 713, ‘dyrð [...] lds’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘dyrð [...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN

notes

[8] þeingils dýrðar eingla ‘of the king of the glory of angels’: This is the emendation suggested by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B); Kock (Skald) has þengils háleits dýrðar ‘of the king of sublime glory’. There is at least one word missing in l. 8, and the kenning suggested here (‘of the king of the glory of angels’) may have had either an adj. or an additional noun element.

Close

‘’

(non-lexical)

[8] dýrðar þeingils: ‘dyrd[...]ls’ 713, ‘dyrð [...] lds’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘dyrð [...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
Close

‘’

(non-lexical)

[8] dýrðar þeingils: ‘dyrd[...]ls’ 713, ‘dyrð [...] lds’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘dyrð [...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN
Close

þeingils ‘of the king’

þengill (noun m.): prince, ruler

[8] dýrðar þeingils: ‘dyrd[...]ls’ 713, ‘dyrð [...] lds’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘dyrð [...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN

notes

[8] þeingils dýrðar eingla ‘of the king of the glory of angels’: This is the emendation suggested by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B); Kock (Skald) has þengils háleits dýrðar ‘of the king of sublime glory’. There is at least one word missing in l. 8, and the kenning suggested here (‘of the king of the glory of angels’) may have had either an adj. or an additional noun element.

Close

þeingils ‘of the king’

þengill (noun m.): prince, ruler

[8] dýrðar þeingils: ‘dyrd[...]ls’ 713, ‘dyrð [...] lds’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘dyrð [...]’ 920ˣ

kennings

fræga ambátt þeingils … dýrðar eingla.
‘the famous handmaid of the king of the glory of angels.’
   = HOLY WOMAN

the king of the glory of angels. → God
the famous handmaid of GOD → HOLY WOMAN

notes

[8] þeingils dýrðar eingla ‘of the king of the glory of angels’: This is the emendation suggested by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B); Kock (Skald) has þengils háleits dýrðar ‘of the king of sublime glory’. There is at least one word missing in l. 8, and the kenning suggested here (‘of the king of the glory of angels’) may have had either an adj. or an additional noun element.

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[5-8]: In the prose saga, the emperor orders fifty of his wisest men to debate (at disputa) with Catherine and overcome her with eloquence and the truth of their books (med orðsnilld ok sannleik boka sinna) (Unger 1877, I, 405; cf. Wolf 2003, 128).

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