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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gsind Hákdr 7I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 166.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
678

Alm ‘of the bow’

almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < almdróg (noun f.)almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < Almdraugr (noun m.)

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

Alm ‘of the bow’

almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < almdróg (noun f.)almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < Almdraugr (noun m.)

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

Alm ‘of the bow’

almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < almdróg (noun f.)almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < Almdraugr (noun m.)

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

drógar ‘string’

dróg (noun f.; °; -ir): string < almdróg (noun f.)

[1] ‑drógar: ‑draugar J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

drógar ‘string’

dróg (noun f.; °; -ir): string < almdróg (noun f.)

[1] ‑drógar: ‑draugar J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

drógar ‘string’

dróg (noun f.; °; -ir): string < almdróg (noun f.)

[1] ‑drógar: ‑draugar J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

varð ‘were obliged’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[1] varð: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, var Kˣ, 39, F, Bb

Close

œgis ‘of the intimidator’

œgir (noun m.): terrifier

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

œgis ‘of the intimidator’

œgir (noun m.): terrifier

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

œgis ‘of the intimidator’

œgir (noun m.): terrifier

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

sinn ‘a time’

2. sinn (noun n.; °?dat. -): time

[2] sinn: sinni 325IX 1 a

Close

enn ‘’

Close

en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[2] en: so 39, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, enn Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Bb, er F

notes

[2] en minnumk þess ‘and I commemorate this’: Kock (Skald) takes enn, the reading of , J1ˣ, J2ˣ, as the adv. ‘again’, but that would violate the word order of main clauses, since the finite verb minnumk ‘commemorate’ would be in third position (cf. Gade 1995a, 213).

Close

þess ‘this’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[2] þess: þat 325IX 1 a, Bb

notes

[2] en minnumk þess ‘and I commemorate this’: Kock (Skald) takes enn, the reading of , J1ˣ, J2ˣ, as the adv. ‘again’, but that would violate the word order of main clauses, since the finite verb minnumk ‘commemorate’ would be in third position (cf. Gade 1995a, 213).

Close

minnumk ‘I commemorate’

1. minna (verb): remind, remember, recall

[2] minnumk: minnisk Bb

notes

[2] en minnumk þess ‘and I commemorate this’: Kock (Skald) takes enn, the reading of , J1ˣ, J2ˣ, as the adv. ‘again’, but that would violate the word order of main clauses, since the finite verb minnumk ‘commemorate’ would be in third position (cf. Gade 1995a, 213).

Close

barma ‘of the brother’

barmi (noun m.): brother

[3] barma: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, harma Kˣ, 39, F

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

barma ‘of the brother’

barmi (noun m.): brother

[3] barma: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, harma Kˣ, 39, F

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

ǫld ‘The progeny’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

kennings

Ǫld barma œgis almdrógar
‘The progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bow-string ’
   = Eiríkssynir

the intimidator of the bow-string → WARRIOR = Hákon
the brother of the WARRIORHÁKON → Eiríkr blóðøx
The progeny of EIRÍKR BLÓÐØX → Eiríkssynir

notes

[1, 3] ǫld barma œgis almdrógar ‘the progeny of the brother of the intimidator of the bowstring [WARRIOR = Hákon > = Eiríkr blóðøx > = Eiríkssynir]’: This refers to the sons (ǫld) of Eiríkr, who is brother (barmi) of Hákon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991; contrast Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191-2). The rare word dróg is thought to mean ‘streak, cord, ribbon’ (CVC, AEW: dróg; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 191; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). With œgir almdrógar compare Hfr Óldr 6/5 œgir ýdrógar ‘terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR]’.

Close

haldri ‘’

Close

Baldri ‘the Baldr’

Baldr (noun m.): [Baldr, Baldur]

[3] Baldri: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, haldi Kˣ, F, ‘halldri’ 39

kennings

Baldri bensíks,
‘the Baldr of the wound-fish, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the wound-fish, → SWORD
the Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hen ‘’

Close

ben ‘of the wound’

1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < bensíkr (noun m.)1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < 1. ben (noun f.): wound

[4] ben‑: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, hein‑ Kˣ, F, ‘hen‑’ 39

kennings

Baldri bensíks,
‘the Baldr of the wound-fish, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the wound-fish, → SWORD
the Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

ben ‘of the wound’

1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < bensíkr (noun m.)1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < 1. ben (noun f.): wound

[4] ben‑: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, hein‑ Kˣ, F, ‘hen‑’ 39

kennings

Baldri bensíks,
‘the Baldr of the wound-fish, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the wound-fish, → SWORD
the Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < bensíkr (noun m.)sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channelsík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel

[4] ‑síks: ‑slíks 325IX 1 a

kennings

Baldri bensíks,
‘the Baldr of the wound-fish, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the wound-fish, → SWORD
the Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < bensíkr (noun m.)sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channelsík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel

[4] ‑síks: ‑slíks 325IX 1 a

kennings

Baldri bensíks,
‘the Baldr of the wound-fish, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the wound-fish, → SWORD
the Baldr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

vita ‘to realise’

1. vita (verb): know

Close

ríkis ‘[his, Hákon’s] power’

ríki (noun n.; °-s; -): kingdom, power

Close

Bǫð ‘of the battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðsœkir (noun m.)

kennings

Bríkar bǫðsœkir
‘battle-attacker of the board’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the battle-board → SHIELD
The attacker of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

Bǫð ‘of the battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðsœkir (noun m.)

kennings

Bríkar bǫðsœkir
‘battle-attacker of the board’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the battle-board → SHIELD
The attacker of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sœkir ‘The attacker’

sœkir (noun m.): attacker < bǫðsœkir (noun m.)

kennings

Bríkar bǫðsœkir
‘battle-attacker of the board’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the battle-board → SHIELD
The attacker of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

beikar ‘’

Close

bríkar ‘board’

brík (noun f.; °-ar; -r): plank

[5] bríkar: ‘beikar’ Bb

kennings

Bríkar bǫðsœkir
‘battle-attacker of the board’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the battle-board → SHIELD
The attacker of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

bríkar ‘board’

brík (noun f.; °-ar; -r): plank

[5] bríkar: ‘beikar’ Bb

kennings

Bríkar bǫðsœkir
‘battle-attacker of the board’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the battle-board → SHIELD
The attacker of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

rak ‘chased’

2. reka (verb): drive, force

[6] rak: om. J1ˣ, J2ˣ

Close

flœðu ‘they fled’

flœja (verb): flee

Close

undan ‘away’

undan (adv.): away, away from

[7] undan: undar Bb

Close

allar ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

[7] allar: allir 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

Close

Eireks ‘of Eiríkr’

Eiríkr (noun m.): Eiríkr

[8] Eireks: Eirík 39, F, Eiríkr J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

Close

snekkjum ‘warships’

snekkja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): warship

[8] snekkjum: skeiðum 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

notes

[8] snekkjum ‘warships’: The type of ship referred to here is unclear. (a) Editors have favoured snekkjum, yielding a regular aðalhending with the second syllable of Eirekr. This occurrence of snekkja, if accepted, would mark the first attestation in OWN; the word may be derived from OE snacc ‘type of ship’ (Jesch 2001a, 126) or it might originate in a Gmc lingua franca used in maritime contexts. (b) The mss of ÓT have skeiðum, which is also possible since r : ð, here eir : skeiðum, is also an acceptable rhyme type, which occurs in st. 5/5 above (see Note, and cf. Jesch 2001a, 126, who similarly allows for the possibility of either snekkjum or skeiðum here). The distinction between snekkja and skeið is unclear. Prose sources indicate that the snekkja was smaller (Jesch 2001a, 126 n. 18), though see Note to ÞjóðA Magnfl 2/2, 3II.

Close

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Hákon pursues Eiríkr’s sons to Austr-Agðir (Aust-Agder), from where they sail southwards across the sea to Jótland (Jutland).

[5-8]: A very difficult passage, which at least on the basis of present knowledge cannot be construed without emendation or the postulation of rare forms and/or usages. There are variant readings for Eireks and snekkjum, and the readings brœðr, síns, rak and flœðu have been extensively debated. (a) In this edn, bríkar bǫðsœkir (l. 5) is construed as a warrior-kenning (cf. Meissner 167, 172, 305) and flœðu (l. 6) as ‘fled’, 3rd pers. pl. pret. indic. from flœja (later flýja) ‘to flee’. The noun brœðr (l. 6) is construed, following Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 193-5), as gen. sg., qualified by síns, thus ‘of his brother’. Although generally a late and quite rare form (ANG §420, Anm. 1) and questioned by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26), gen. sg. brœðr could have arisen analogically, e.g. from the dat. sg., where bróður and brœðr both occur (LP: bróðir). It could be used here as a poetic licence. The adverbial á haf ‘out to sea’ is most readily explained as an apo koinou, going with both helt ‘held, steered’ (l. 5) and rak ‘drove, chased’ (l. 6). (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) reads bríkar bǫðsœkir helt snekkjum sínum á haf, ok brœðr, allar kindir Eireks, flœðu undan ‘the attacker of the battle-board [(lit. ‘battle-attacker of the board’) SHIELD > WARRIOR] held his warships out to sea and the brothers, all the sons of Eiríkr, fled away’. Rak ‘drove’ is omitted, as in J, but its absence from this ms. is clearly the outcome of simple error (cf. Reichardt 1928, 174). Also entailed is emendation of síns to sínum, qualifying snekkjum, and the resulting l. 6, brœðr sínum ok flœðu, with ok ‘and’ in fourth position, is suspect on metrical grounds. (c) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 193-5) reads bríkar bǫðsœkir helt snekkjum á haf, ok rak flœða undan allar kindir Eireks, brœðr síns ‘the attacker of the battle-board [(lit. ‘battle-attacker of the board’) SHIELD > WARRIOR] held [his] warships out to sea and drove away all the sons of Eiríkr, his brother, put to flight’. As Björn himself notes, the morphology and syntax of flœða are unclear; it should agree with kindir ‘sons’ as f. acc. pl. (cf. Reichardt 1928, 175). (d) Kock (NN §251) proposes a variation on Finnur Jónsson’s second clause, emending brœðr to bróður, síns to hans, and ok rak to auk: allar kindir Eireks, bróður hans, auk flœðu ‘all the sons of Eiríkr, his brother, also fled.’ Kock himself saw this as purely provisional and subsequently (NN §1933) modified it to read rak flœði ‘thrust over the wave’. (e) Reichardt (1928, 173-6; cf. ÍF 26; Hkr 1991), partly following Sveinbjörn Egilsson (LP (1860): flæðr f. 2. sea’), reads flœða bríkar bǫðsœkir helt snekkjum á haf, ok rak undan allar kindir Eireks, brœðr síns ‘the seeker of the battle of the board of the sea [(lit. battle-seeker of the board of the sea’) SHIP > SEA-BATTLE > SEAFARING WARRIOR] held his warships out to sea and drove away all the sons of Eiríkr, his brother’. (f) Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) accepts Reichardt’s solution, modifying flœða to flœðu, still with the sense ‘sea’, a step already suggested by Reichardt (1928, 176). This entails accepting flœðu as gen. sg. of an unattested noun *flœða, corresponding to flœð(r) ‘flooding’.

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