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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gsind Hákdr 6I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 164.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
567

þꜹnar ‘’

Close

þǫgnar ‘’

Close

þamar ‘’

Close

þǫgnir ‘’

Close

þagnar ‘þǫgn’

Þǫgn (noun f.): Þǫgn < valþǫgn (noun f.)

[1] ‑þagnar: so 53, ‑þǫgnir Kˣ, 39, 61, ‑rǫgnir F, ‘‑þamar’ J1ˣ, ‘‑þꜹnar’ J2ˣ, ‑þǫgnar 325IX 1 a, Bb, ‑þegnar Flat

kennings

vegnum Valþagnar hlymmildingum.
‘tumult-bestowers of Valþǫgn’
   = WARRIORS

the tumult of Valþǫgn. → BATTLE
the slain bestowers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[1] Valþagnar ‘of Valþǫgn <valkyrie>’: On this proper noun, see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 87). 

Close

þagnar ‘þǫgn’

Þǫgn (noun f.): Þǫgn < valþǫgn (noun f.)

[1] ‑þagnar: so 53, ‑þǫgnir Kˣ, 39, 61, ‑rǫgnir F, ‘‑þamar’ J1ˣ, ‘‑þꜹnar’ J2ˣ, ‑þǫgnar 325IX 1 a, Bb, ‑þegnar Flat

kennings

vegnum Valþagnar hlymmildingum.
‘tumult-bestowers of Valþǫgn’
   = WARRIORS

the tumult of Valþǫgn. → BATTLE
the slain bestowers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[1] Valþagnar ‘of Valþǫgn <valkyrie>’: On this proper noun, see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 87). 

Close

lét ‘let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] lét: réð 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb

Close

vegnum ‘of the slain’

1. vega (verb): strike, slay

kennings

vegnum Valþagnar hlymmildingum.
‘tumult-bestowers of Valþǫgn’
   = WARRIORS

the tumult of Valþǫgn. → BATTLE
the slain bestowers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

víg ‘war’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle < vígnest (noun f.)víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle < vígnest (noun f.)

kennings

vígnestr
‘war-needles ’
   = SPEARS

war-needles → SPEARS

notes

[2] vígnestr (f. acc. pl.) ‘war-needles [SPEARS]’: The kenning could mean either ‘spears’ (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; Skj B) or ‘swords’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV;  ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). Meissner 156 lists it among sword-kennings but also mentions ‘spear’ and ‘shield’ as possibilities.

Close

nest ‘’

Close

nestr ‘needles’

1. nist (noun f.): [needles] < vígnest (noun f.)

[2] ‑nestr: ‑nest J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

vígnestr
‘war-needles ’
   = SPEARS

war-needles → SPEARS

notes

[2] vígnestr (f. acc. pl.) ‘war-needles [SPEARS]’: The kenning could mean either ‘spears’ (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; Skj B) or ‘swords’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV;  ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). Meissner 156 lists it among sword-kennings but also mentions ‘spear’ and ‘shield’ as possibilities.

Close

saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together

[2] saman: sama J1ˣ

Close

handar ‘of the arm’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

[3] handar: hand J1ˣ, hríðar Flat

kennings

Gildir vafs handar
‘ The payer of the coil of the arm ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

the coil of the arm → ARM-RING
The payer of the ARM-RING → GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

notes

[3, 4] gildir vafs handar ‘the payer of the coil of the arm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN = Hákon]’: This reflects derivation of gildir from gilda ‘give value, validate’ or gjalda ‘to pay’ (Meissner 293-4; cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). The heiti vaf ‘coil, wrapper’ occurs only twice in the poetic corpus (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; cf. AEW: vaf).

Close

handar ‘of the arm’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

[3] handar: hand J1ˣ, hríðar Flat

kennings

Gildir vafs handar
‘ The payer of the coil of the arm ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

the coil of the arm → ARM-RING
The payer of the ARM-RING → GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

notes

[3, 4] gildir vafs handar ‘the payer of the coil of the arm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN = Hákon]’: This reflects derivation of gildir from gilda ‘give value, validate’ or gjalda ‘to pay’ (Meissner 293-4; cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). The heiti vaf ‘coil, wrapper’ occurs only twice in the poetic corpus (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; cf. AEW: vaf).

Close

nafs ‘’

Close

varps ‘’

Close

vafs ‘of the coil’

vaf (noun n.; °; *-): [coil]

[3] vafs: ‘nafs’ 39, F, varps Flat

kennings

Gildir vafs handar
‘ The payer of the coil of the arm ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

the coil of the arm → ARM-RING
The payer of the ARM-RING → GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

notes

[3, 4] gildir vafs handar ‘the payer of the coil of the arm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN = Hákon]’: This reflects derivation of gildir from gilda ‘give value, validate’ or gjalda ‘to pay’ (Meissner 293-4; cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). The heiti vaf ‘coil, wrapper’ occurs only twice in the poetic corpus (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; cf. AEW: vaf).

Close

vafs ‘of the coil’

vaf (noun n.; °; *-): [coil]

[3] vafs: ‘nafs’ 39, F, varps Flat

kennings

Gildir vafs handar
‘ The payer of the coil of the arm ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

the coil of the arm → ARM-RING
The payer of the ARM-RING → GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

notes

[3, 4] gildir vafs handar ‘the payer of the coil of the arm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN = Hákon]’: This reflects derivation of gildir from gilda ‘give value, validate’ or gjalda ‘to pay’ (Meissner 293-4; cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). The heiti vaf ‘coil, wrapper’ occurs only twice in the poetic corpus (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; cf. AEW: vaf).

Close

of ‘over’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[3] of: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, af Kˣ, 39, F, ok Bb, Flat

Close

hlyttr ‘’

Close

hlym ‘of the tumult’

hlymr (noun m.): din < hlymmildingr (noun m.)hlymr (noun m.): dinhlymr (noun m.): din < hlymmildingr (noun m.)

[4] hlym‑: hlýðin‑ 53, ‘hlyttr‑’ Flat

kennings

vegnum Valþagnar hlymmildingum.
‘tumult-bestowers of Valþǫgn’
   = WARRIORS

the tumult of Valþǫgn. → BATTLE
the slain bestowers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[1] Valþagnar ‘of Valþǫgn <valkyrie>’: On this proper noun, see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 87). 

Close

hlym ‘of the tumult’

hlymr (noun m.): din < hlymmildingr (noun m.)hlymr (noun m.): dinhlymr (noun m.): din < hlymmildingr (noun m.)

[4] hlym‑: hlýðin‑ 53, ‘hlyttr‑’ Flat

kennings

vegnum Valþagnar hlymmildingum.
‘tumult-bestowers of Valþǫgn’
   = WARRIORS

the tumult of Valþǫgn. → BATTLE
the slain bestowers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[1] Valþagnar ‘of Valþǫgn <valkyrie>’: On this proper noun, see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 87). 

Close

minndingom ‘’

Close

mildingum ‘bestowers’

mildingr (noun m.; °-s): ruler, generous one < hlymmildingr (noun m.)mildingr (noun m.; °-s): ruler, generous one

[4] ‑mildingum: ‘‑minndingom’ 39, ‑milding 53, ‑mildingr 325IX 1 a, Bb, Flat

kennings

vegnum Valþagnar hlymmildingum.
‘tumult-bestowers of Valþǫgn’
   = WARRIORS

the tumult of Valþǫgn. → BATTLE
the slain bestowers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[1] Valþagnar ‘of Valþǫgn <valkyrie>’: On this proper noun, see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 87). 

Close

gildit ‘’

Close

gildir ‘The payer’

gildir (noun m.): payer, supporter

[4] gildir: gildit 39, F, gildar 61, 325IX 1 a, gildan Bb, gildi Flat

kennings

Gildir vafs handar
‘ The payer of the coil of the arm ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

the coil of the arm → ARM-RING
The payer of the ARM-RING → GENEROUS MAN = Hákon

notes

[3, 4] gildir vafs handar ‘the payer of the coil of the arm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN = Hákon]’: This reflects derivation of gildir from gilda ‘give value, validate’ or gjalda ‘to pay’ (Meissner 293-4; cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). The heiti vaf ‘coil, wrapper’ occurs only twice in the poetic corpus (Finnur Jónsson 1884, 88-9; cf. AEW: vaf).

Close

Þar ‘There’

þar (adv.): there

Close

Njǫrðr ‘the Njǫrðr’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

nirðri ‘’

Close

Nirði ‘Njǫrðr’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr

[5] Nirði: niðri 53, ‘nírdrí’ Bb

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

naddrs ‘’

Close

nánds ‘’

Close

nadds ‘of the spear’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point

[6] nadds: ‘nandz’ J1ˣ, naddrs Flat

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

nadds ‘of the spear’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point

[6] nadds: ‘nandz’ J1ˣ, naddrs Flat

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

nadds ‘of the spear’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point

[6] nadds: ‘nandz’ J1ˣ, naddrs Flat

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hámána ‘of the high moon’

hámáni (noun m.): [high moon]

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[6] hámána ‘of the high moon’: This, the base-word in a shield-kenning, has been interpreted as a reference to a long shield (Meissner 62) or a shield held high (Kock, NN §146).

Close

hámána ‘of the high moon’

hámáni (noun m.): [high moon]

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[6] hámána ‘of the high moon’: This, the base-word in a shield-kenning, has been interpreted as a reference to a long shield (Meissner 62) or a shield held high (Kock, NN §146).

Close

hámána ‘of the high moon’

hámáni (noun m.): [high moon]

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[6] hámána ‘of the high moon’: This, the base-word in a shield-kenning, has been interpreted as a reference to a long shield (Meissner 62) or a shield held high (Kock, NN §146).

Close

raddar ‘of the voice’

rǫdd (noun f.; °raddar, dat. -/u; raddir): voice

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

raddar ‘of the voice’

rǫdd (noun f.; °raddar, dat. -/u; raddir): voice

kennings

Njǫrðr raddar hámána nadds
‘the Njǫrðr of the voice of the high moon of the spear ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the high moon of the spear → SHIELD
the voice of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

val ‘of the slaughter’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbraut (noun f.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

val ‘of the slaughter’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbraut (noun f.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

val ‘of the slaughter’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbraut (noun f.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

val ‘of the slaughter’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbraut (noun f.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valbrandr (noun m.)

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

brands ‘fire’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire < valbrandr (noun m.)

[7] ‑brands: ‑brandr 39, 53, 325IX 1 a, ‑braut Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

brands ‘fire’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire < valbrandr (noun m.)

[7] ‑brands: ‑brandr 39, 53, 325IX 1 a, ‑braut Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

brands ‘fire’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire < valbrandr (noun m.)

[7] ‑brands: ‑brandr 39, 53, 325IX 1 a, ‑braut Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

brands ‘fire’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire < valbrandr (noun m.)

[7] ‑brands: ‑brandr 39, 53, 325IX 1 a, ‑braut Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

víðra ‘of the wide’

víðr (adj.): far

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

víðra ‘of the wide’

víðr (adj.): far

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

landa ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

landa ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

vápnunduðum ‘the weapon-wounded’

vápnundaðr (adj./verb p.p.): [weapon-wounded]

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

sunda ‘of the inlets’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

[8] sunda: lét sunda Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
Close

sunda ‘of the inlets’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

[8] sunda: lét sunda Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
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sunda ‘of the inlets’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

[8] sunda: lét sunda Flat

kennings

vápnunduðum Nirði víðra landa sunda valbrands.
‘the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of the wide lands of the inlets of the slaughter-fire.’
   = WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson

the slaughter -fire. → SWORD
the inlets of the SWORD → BLOOD
the wide lands of the BLOOD → SHIELDS
the weapon-wounded Njǫrðr of SHIELDS → WARRIOR = Guthormr Eiríksson
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Hákon learns that the Eiríkssynir (or Gunnhildarsynir) have entered Vík (Viken), putting Tryggvi Óláfsson to flight and raiding extensively. He defeats them at Ǫgvaldsnes (Avaldsnes, Rogaland) and they flee, weakened by the death of their leader Guthormr Eiríksson in the battle.

[5-8]: Remarkable is the construction of two kennings upon the base-word Njǫrðr (nom. sg.) and Nirði (dat. sg.) ‘Njǫrðr <god>’, though cf. a similar use of Baldr in Hharð Lv 5II, continued in ÞjóðA Lv 3II. The first kenning refers to Hákon, the second to his slain opponent, Guthormr Eiríksson. The detailed analysis of the helmingr, and particularly of l. 8 sunda ‘of the inlets’, however, presents difficulties. (a) It is assumed here, with most previous eds (including ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991, with differences of detail) that gen. pl. sunda forms a blood-kenning with one or other of the two kennings in the helmingr. In the construal shown above, the sword-kenning is the determinant of the blood-kenning. A variation on this is to read Njǫrðr raddar sunda hámána nadds ‘Njǫrðr of the voice of the inlets of the high moon of the spear [SHIELD > BLOOD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’ where the shield-kenning is the determinant of the blood-kenning, but this is not a known pattern (cf. the blood-kennings in Meissner 204-5). Neither solution is unproblematic, since the battle-kenning in l. 6 and the shields-kenning in l. 7 are both logically complete without the addition of sunda ‘of the inlets’. (b) Finnur Jónsson’s analysis (1884, 90; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; tacit in Skj B; LP: hômáni, valbrandr; cf. Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 192) involves two cases of tmesis: há-raddar ‘loud voice’ and val-sunda ‘corpse-inlets’, but this is unnecessary (Sahlgren 1927-8, I, 129). (c) Kock (NN §1932, modifying a solution proposed in NN §1079A) reads sunda víðra landa valbrands vápnunduðum ‘wounded by the weapon of the inlets of the wide lands of the slaughter-fire [SWORD > SHIELDS > BLOOD]’, i.e. ‘wounded by a bloody weapon’, but the syntax implicit in this postulated use of the kenning to qualify vápn ‘weapon’ is dubious (cf. Sahlgren 1927-8, I, 129).

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