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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gsind Hákdr 4I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 162.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
345

Skattgilda ‘tribute-paying’

skattgilda (verb): [tribute-paying]

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skyldir ‘The requisitioner’

skyldir (noun m.): commander

kennings

Skyldir skautjalfaðar
‘ The requisitioner of the sail-bear ’
   = SEAFARER

the sail-bear → SHIP
The requisitioner of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[1] skyldir ‘the requisitioner’: The agentive skyldir, from skylda ‘to require, exact, oblige’, has few attestations, and emendation to skildir ‘equipper with shields’ has been suggested, as being a natural collocation with expressions for ‘ship’ (Meissner 301). Previous eds have retained skyldir, assuming the general sense ‘controller, steerer’ (Skj B; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991), but a more specific reference is possible, to a naval levy by which the ruler required building or provision of ships as a form of tribute; this would fit with saga evidence that Hákon organised such a levy (Krag 2003b, 189).

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skaut ‘of the sail’

skaut (noun n.; °; -): sail < skautjǫlfuðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skyldir skautjalfaðar
‘ The requisitioner of the sail-bear ’
   = SEAFARER

the sail-bear → SHIP
The requisitioner of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] skautjalfaðar ‘of the sail-bear [SHIP]’: Skaut n. refers to the corner of a sail or piece of cloth, hence probably ‘sail’, or else ‘sheet’, a rope attached to the corner (Jesch 2001a, 163-4). The heiti jalfaðr/jǫlfuðr can mean ‘bear’ as here, or refer to Óðinn as in st. 1/6 (and see Note); compare Guthormr’s use of val- in different senses in sts 2/7 and 3/3.

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skaut ‘of the sail’

skaut (noun n.; °; -): sail < skautjǫlfuðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skyldir skautjalfaðar
‘ The requisitioner of the sail-bear ’
   = SEAFARER

the sail-bear → SHIP
The requisitioner of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] skautjalfaðar ‘of the sail-bear [SHIP]’: Skaut n. refers to the corner of a sail or piece of cloth, hence probably ‘sail’, or else ‘sheet’, a rope attached to the corner (Jesch 2001a, 163-4). The heiti jalfaðr/jǫlfuðr can mean ‘bear’ as here, or refer to Óðinn as in st. 1/6 (and see Note); compare Guthormr’s use of val- in different senses in sts 2/7 and 3/3.

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jalfaðar ‘bear’

jǫlfuðr (noun m.): [bear] < skautjǫlfuðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skyldir skautjalfaðar
‘ The requisitioner of the sail-bear ’
   = SEAFARER

the sail-bear → SHIP
The requisitioner of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] skautjalfaðar ‘of the sail-bear [SHIP]’: Skaut n. refers to the corner of a sail or piece of cloth, hence probably ‘sail’, or else ‘sheet’, a rope attached to the corner (Jesch 2001a, 163-4). The heiti jalfaðr/jǫlfuðr can mean ‘bear’ as here, or refer to Óðinn as in st. 1/6 (and see Note); compare Guthormr’s use of val- in different senses in sts 2/7 and 3/3.

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jalfaðar ‘bear’

jǫlfuðr (noun m.): [bear] < skautjǫlfuðr (noun m.)

kennings

Skyldir skautjalfaðar
‘ The requisitioner of the sail-bear ’
   = SEAFARER

the sail-bear → SHIP
The requisitioner of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] skautjalfaðar ‘of the sail-bear [SHIP]’: Skaut n. refers to the corner of a sail or piece of cloth, hence probably ‘sail’, or else ‘sheet’, a rope attached to the corner (Jesch 2001a, 163-4). The heiti jalfaðr/jǫlfuðr can mean ‘bear’ as here, or refer to Óðinn as in st. 1/6 (and see Note); compare Guthormr’s use of val- in different senses in sts 2/7 and 3/3.

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Gauta ‘the Gautar’

gauti (noun m.): man, Geat

[2] Gauta: Gauti Flat

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goll ‘gold’

gull (noun n.): gold < gullskýflir (noun m.)gull (noun n.): gold < gǫll (noun f.): shriekgull (noun n.): gold

kennings

gjǫflastr gollskýflir
‘the most generous gold-destroyer ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the most generous gold-destroyer → GENEROUS MAN
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skylfir ‘’

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skýflir ‘destroyer’

skýflir (noun m.): [destroyer] < gullskýflir (noun m.)

[3] ‑skýflir: so F, 61, Bb, ‑skýft Kˣ, ‑skylfir J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Flat

kennings

gjǫflastr gollskýflir
‘the most generous gold-destroyer ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the most generous gold-destroyer → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[3] -skýflir ‘destroyer’: This sense is assumed on the basis of an etymology from skýfa ‘shove’ (cf. Meissner 289; Note to Rv Lv 14/7II). An alternative possibility is that it may derive from a distinct verb skyfla ‘to plunder, rob’ which is frequent in OEN (Fritzner: skyflir; AEW: -skyflt; cf. Meissner 301; ÍF 26), though not directly attested in OWN. The short vowel would be supported by the ModIcel. form -skylm- cited in LP: skýflir. The notion of the active pursuit of treasure would be paralleled in kennings with base-words such as beiðir or sœkir, both ‘pursuer’ (Meissner 290, 305).

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vann ‘made’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

[3] vann: fann Flat

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gjǫflastr ‘the most generous’

gjǫfull (adj.; °gjǫflan; superl. gjǫflastr): munificent

kennings

gjǫflastr gollskýflir
‘the most generous gold-destroyer ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the most generous gold-destroyer → GENEROUS MAN
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geir ‘spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirveðr (noun m.): [a spear-storm]

[4] geirveðr: om. J1ˣ

kennings

geirveðr
‘spear-storms ’
   = BATTLES

spear-storms → BATTLES
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veðr ‘storms’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < geirveðr (noun m.): [a spear-storm]

[4] geirveðr: om. J1ˣ

kennings

geirveðr
‘spear-storms ’
   = BATTLES

spear-storms → BATTLES
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 3. Hákon raids and exacts tribute as far east as Gautland (Götaland). Following the stanza, it is told that he overwinters in Vík (Viken), as a precaution against attacks from the Danes and Gautar.

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